Remotely sensed data allows archaeologists and historic preservationists the ability to detect phenomena previously unobservable to them by nondestructive methods. Archaeologists have successfully used aerial photography since the turn of the century and it continues to be an important research tool today. Multispectral scanners and computer-implemented analysis techniques extend the range of human vision and provide the investigator with innovative research designs at scales previously unimaginable. Pioneering efforts in the use of remote sensing technology have demonstrated its potential, but it is the recent technological developments in remote sensing instrumentation and computer capability that provide for unlimited, cost-effective applications in the future. The combination of remote sensing, Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is radically altering survey, inventory, and modeling approaches.


Global Position System Remote Sensing Geographic Information System Aerial Photography Historic Preservation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, R.E.W., Brown, WE. Jr., and Culbert, T.P. 1981 Radar, Mapping, Archaeology, and Ancient Maya Land Use. Science 213(4515): 1457–1463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ambrosia, V. and Whiteford, G.T. 1983 Aerial Photograph Interpretation in Remote Sensing. In Richason, B., ed., Remote Sensing of the Environment. Dubuque, IA, Kendall/Hunt: 57–84.Google Scholar
  3. American Society of Photogrammetry 1984 SPOT Simulation Applications Handbook. Falls Church, VA.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, J.E. 1992 Determination of Water Surface Temperature Based on the Use of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner Data. Geocarto International 7(3): 3–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avery, T.E. and Berlin, G.L. 1985 Interpretation of Aerial Photographs, 4th edition. Minneapolis, MN, Burgess.Google Scholar
  6. Avery, T.E. and Lyons, T.R. 1981 Remote Sensing: Aerial and Terrestrial Photography for Archaeologists. Supplement No. 7. Remote Sensing. Washington, D.C., National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior.Google Scholar
  7. Baker, C. and Gumerman, G.J. 1981 Archaeological Applications of Remote Sensing in the North Central Lowlands. Supplement No. 6. Remote Sensing. Washington D.C., National Park Service, U.S. Dept. of Interior.Google Scholar
  8. Baksh, M. 1991 Applications of a Hand-Held GPS Receiver in South American Rain Forests. In Behrens, C. and Sever, T., eds, Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology. John C. Stennis Space Center, MS, NASA: 227–236.Google Scholar
  9. Beazeley, Liet.-Col. G.A. 1919 Air Photography in Archaeology. The Geographical Journal May: 30.Google Scholar
  10. Behrens, C.A. and Sever, T. 1991 Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology. Conference Proceedings, 28 November 1990. John C. Stennis Space Center, MS: NASA Science and Technology Laboratory.Google Scholar
  11. Bennett, J., Smith, L., and Laustrup, M. 1986 The Red River Valley Archaeological Project. In The TIMS User’s Workshop. JPL, California Institute of Technology: 6. —1985 The Red River Archaeological Project, 1984-1985. In The Application of Remote Sensing. Oklahoma City, OK, Oklahoma Historical Society.Google Scholar
  12. Birk, R.J. and Spiering, B. 1992 Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System. John C. Stennis Space Center, MS, NASA.Google Scholar
  13. Birk, R.J. and McCord, T.B. 1994 Airborne Hyperspectral Sensor Systems. In Proceedings of the 47th National Aerospace and Electronics Conference, May 23–27, Dayton, OH.Google Scholar
  14. Borowski, O., Sever, T., Miller, E, and Lee, D. 1994 Iron-age II Tower-communication System. Lahav Newsletter October 1994: 2.Google Scholar
  15. Bowen, H.C. 1962 Air Photographs and the Study of Ancient Fields in England. International Archives of Photogrammetry 4: 411–418.Google Scholar
  16. Bushneil, D.I. Jr. 1922 Archaeological Reconnaissance of the Cahokia and Related Mound Groups. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections. 72(15).Google Scholar
  17. Campbell, J.B. 1987 Introduction to Remote Sensing. New York, Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  18. Capper, Col. J.E. 1907 Photographs of Stonehenge as Seen From a War Balloon. Archaeologia: 571.Google Scholar
  19. — 1982 Using Remote Sensing in a Predictive Model: The Jackson Purchase Region, Kentucky. Proceedings of Pecora VII Symposium. Washington, D.C., U.S. Dept. of the Interior: 494–507.Google Scholar
  20. Carstens, K.C., Kind, T.C., and Weber, N.V 1983 Applications of Remote Sensing in Cultural Resource Management: Archaeology. In Richason, B., ed., Remote Sensing of the Environment. Dubuque, IA, Kendall/Hall: 299–316.Google Scholar
  21. Chagnon, N. 1991 GIS, GPS, Political History and Geo-demography of the Aramamisi Yanamamo Expansion. In Behrens, C. and Sever, T., eds, Applications of Space Age Technology in Anthropology. John C. Stennis Space Center, MS, NASA: 35–62.Google Scholar
  22. Chevrel, M., Courtois, M., and Weill, G. 1981 The SPOT Satellite Remote Sensing Mission. Pho-togrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing 47(8): 1163–1171.Google Scholar
  23. Cibula, W. and Carter, G. 1992 Identification of a Far-red Reflectance Response to Ectomycor-rhizae in Slash Pine. International Journal of Remote Sensing 13(5): 925–932.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Colwell, R.N. 1983 The Manual of Remote Sensing: 2nd edition. Falls Church, VA, American Society for Photogrammetry.Google Scholar
  25. Cooper, F.A., Bauer, M.E., and Cullen, B.C. 1991 Satellite Spectral Data and Archaeological Reconnaissance in Western Greece. In Behrens, C. and Sever, T., eds, Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology. John C. Stennis Space Center, MS, NASA: 63–79.Google Scholar
  26. Crawford, O.G.S. and Keiller, A. 1928 Wessex from the Air. Oxford, England, The Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  27. Custer, J., Eveleigh, T., Klemas, V, and Wells, I. 1986 Application of Landsat Data and Synoptic Remote Sensing to Predictive Models for Prehistoric Archaeological Sites: An Example from the Delaware Coastal Plain. American Antiquity 51: 572–578.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Custer, J., Eveleigh, T., and Klemas, V 1983 A LANDSAT-Generated Predictive Model for Prehistoric Archaeological Sites in Delaware’s Coastal Plain. Bulletin of Archaeological Society of Delaware 14: 19–38.Google Scholar
  29. DaMommio, T. and Kuo, S. 1992 Optical Design for the ATLAS Multispectral Scanner. John C. Stennis Space Center, MS, NASA.Google Scholar
  30. Del Grande, N.K., Clark, G.A., Durbin, RE, Fields, D.J., Hernandez, J.E., and Sherwood, R.J. 1991 Buried Object Remote Detection Technology for Law Enforcement. Proceedings of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers. Surveillance Technologies 2-5 April, 1479: 335–351.Google Scholar
  31. Deuel, L. 1969 Flights into Yesterday: The Story of Aerial Archaeology. New York, NY, St. Martins Press.Google Scholar
  32. Doolittle, J.A. and Miller, E 1991 Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar Techniques in Archaeological Investigations. In Behrens, C. and Sever, T, eds, Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology. John C. Stennis Space Center, MS, NASA: 81–93.Google Scholar
  33. Ebert, J.I. and Lyons, T.R. 1983 Archaeology, Anthropology, and Cultural Resources Management. In Colwell, Robert N., ed., Manual of Remote Sensing, Volume II, Interpretation and Applications. Falls Church, VA, American Society of Photogrammetry: 1233–1304.Google Scholar
  34. Ediene, B. 1956 Une Methode Practique pour la Detection ANrienne des Sites Archaeologiques, en Particulier par la Photographie sur Films en Couleurs et sur Films Infra-rogues. Bulletin de la Societe Prehistorique Francaise 53: 540–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Elachi, C., Haynes, C.V., Issawi, B., and McCauley, J.E 1982 Use of the Space Shuttle for Remote Sensing Research: Recent Results and Future Prospects. Science 218(4576): 993–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Estes, J.E. and Senger, L.W. 1974 Remote Sensing Techniques for Environmental Analysis. Santa Barbara, CA, Hamilton.Google Scholar
  37. Estes, J.E. and Simonett, D.S. 1975 Fundamentals of Image Interpretation. In Reeves, R.G., ed., Manual of Remote Sensing. Falls Church, VA, American Society of Photogrammetry: 869–1076.Google Scholar
  38. Gibson, J. 1984 The Earthen Face of Civilization, Mapping and Testing at Poverty Point, 1983. University of Southwestern Louisiana Center for Archaeological Studies.Google Scholar
  39. — 1987 The Ground Truth About Poverty Point: The Second Season, 1985. University of Southwestern Louisiana, Center for Archaeological Studies, Report No. 7.Google Scholar
  40. — 1989 Digging on the Dock of the Bay(ou). University of Southwestern Louisiana, Center for Archaeological Studies, Report No. 8.Google Scholar
  41. Gonzalez, R.C. and Wintz, P. 1977 Digital Image Processing. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  42. Gumerman, G. and Lyons, T. 1971 Archaeological Methodology and Remote Sensing. Science 172: 126–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hansen, D.B. 1983 Generic GIS (Geographic Evaluation Network for Earth Resource Inventory and Classification). Ft. Collins, CO, Western Energy Land Use Team, Division of Biological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.Google Scholar
  44. Harp, E. Jr. 1958 Optimum Scales and Emulsions in Air Photo Archaeology. Presented at the VIII International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Tokyo, Japan.Google Scholar
  45. Haynes, C.V., Issawi, B., Elachi, C., and Blom, R. 1982 Subsurface Valleys and Geoarchaeology of the Eastern Sahara Revealed by Shuttle Radar. Science 218(3): 1004–1019.Google Scholar
  46. Heaslip, G.G. 1975 Environmental Data Handling. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  47. Hord, R.M. 1982 Digital Image Processing of Remotely Sensed Data. New York, NY, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  48. Inglis, M., Budge, T., and Ebert, J. 1984 Preliminary Evaluation of Simulated SPOT Data for Cultural Resource Assessment Management, New Mexico. In SPOT Simulation Applications Handbook, pp. 73–82.Google Scholar
  49. Jain, Anil K. 1989 Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
  50. Jensen, J.R. 1986 Introductory Digital Image Processing. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall, Inc.Google Scholar
  51. Johnson, G.R. and Platt, R.R. 1930 Peru From the Air. Washington, DC, American Geographical Society, Special Publication No. 12.Google Scholar
  52. Johnson, J.K., Sever, T.L., Madry, S.L., and Hoff, H.T. 1988 Remote Sensing and GIS Analysis Large Scale Survey Design in North Mississippi. Southeastern Archaeology 7(2): 124–131.Google Scholar
  53. Joyce, C. 1992 Archaeology Takes to the Skies. New Scientist 25 January: 42–46.Google Scholar
  54. Kahle, A. and Goetz, A. 1983 Mineralogic Information from a New Airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner. Science 222: 24–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kincaid, C., ed. 1983 Chaco Roads Project Phase I: A Reappraisal of Prehistoric Roads in the San Juan Basin. Albuquerque, NM, Bureau of Land Management.Google Scholar
  56. Larimer, T. 1988 Digging into City’s Past, Archaeologists find Santa Cruz Mission’s Water Ditch. San Jose Mercury News October 2.Google Scholar
  57. Lillesand, T.M. and Kiefer, R. 1987 Remote Sensing and Image Interpretation. New York, NY, John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  58. Limp, EW. 1989 The Use of Multispectral Digital Imagery in Archaeological Investigations. Arkansas Archaeological Survey Research Series, No. 34.Google Scholar
  59. Lister, R.H. and Lister, F.C. 1981 Chaco Canyon. Albuquerque, NM, University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  60. Lyons, T.R. 1976 Remote Sensing Experiments in Cultural Resource Studies: Non-destructive Methods of Archaeological Exploration, Survey, and Analysis. Reports of the Chaco Center, No. 1. Albuquerque, NM, National Park Service and University of New Mexico.Google Scholar
  61. Lyons, T.R. and Avery, T.E. 1977 Remote Sensing: A Handbook for Archaeologists and Cultural Resource Managers. Washington, DC, National Park Service.Google Scholar
  62. Lyons, T.R. and Ebert, J.I. 1978 Remote Sensing and Non-destructive Archaeology. Washington, DC, Cultural Resource Management Division, National Park Service.Google Scholar
  63. Madry, S.L.H. 1983 Remote Sensing in Archaeology. Archaeology May/June: 18-20. —1984 A Multiscalar Application of Remote Sensing in a Temperate Regional Archaeological Survey. Technical paper of the 50th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Photogrammetry.Google Scholar
  64. Marble, D.E, Peuquet, D.J., Boyle, A.R., Bryant, N., Calkins, H.W., Johnson, T., and Zobrist, A. 1983 Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing. In Colwell, R.N., ed., The Manual of Remote Sensing. Falls Church, VA, American Society of Photogrammetry: 923–958.Google Scholar
  65. McAleer, N. 1988 Pixel Archaeology. Discover August: 72–77.Google Scholar
  66. Mid-America Remote Sensing Center 1983 Determination of the Utility of Remote Sensing Data for Land Use/Cover Analyses in the Lower Appalachia Region-Assessing the Utility of Remote Sensing Data for Archaeological Site Reconnaissance. NASA Contract NAS13-200. Murray State University: August 15.Google Scholar
  67. Miller, F. 1986 Remote Sensing Techniques in Historical Site Discrimination. Remote Sensing of Environment 11: 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Miller, F., Sever, T., and Lee, D. 1991 Applications of Ecological Concepts and Remote Sensing Technologies in Archaeological Site Reconnaissance. In Behrens, C. and Sever, T., eds, Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology. John C. Stennis Space Center, MS, NASA: 121–136.Google Scholar
  69. Moik, J.G. 1980 Digital Processing of Remotely Sensed Images. Goddard Space Flight Center, Washington, DC, NASA SP-431.Google Scholar
  70. Moseley, M., Wagner, D., and Richardson, J.B. III. 1992 Space Shuttle Imagery of Recent Catastrophic Change Along the Arid Andean Coast. In Johnson, L.L., ed., Paleoshorelines and Prehistory: An Investigation of Method. Boca Raton, FL, CRC Press: 215–235.Google Scholar
  71. Nials, F., Stein, J., and Roney, J. 1987 Chaco Roads in the Southern Periphery: Results of Phase II of the BLM Chaco Roads Project. Albuquerque, NM, Bureau of Land Management.Google Scholar
  72. Obenauf, M. 1983 Evaluation of Aerial Photography. In Kincaid, Chris, ed., Chaco Roads Project, Phase I, A Reappraisal of Prehistoric Roads in the San Juan Basin. Albuquerque, NM, BLM, US. Dept. of the Interior: 4-1 to 4–21.Google Scholar
  73. Paine, D.P. 1981 Aerial Photography and Image Interpretation for Resource Management. New York, NY, Wiley.Google Scholar
  74. Palluconi, F. and Meeks, G. 1985 Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS): An Investigative Guide to TIMS Data. Pasadena, CA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 85-32.Google Scholar
  75. Pelletier, R.E. and Ochao, M.C. 1986 Applications of TIMS Data in Agricultural Areas and Related Atmospheric Considerations. In Kahle, A. and Abbott, E., eds, TIMS Data Users Workshop. Pasadena, CA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 86-38: 57–58.Google Scholar
  76. Podwysocki, M.H., Moik, J.G., and Shoup, W.D. 1975 Quantification of Geological Lineaments by Manual and Machine Processing Techniques. Proceedings of the NASA Earth Resources Survey Symposium, Houston, TX, NASA: 885–903.Google Scholar
  77. Richason, B.F. 1983 Remote Sensing: An Overview. In Richason, B.F., ed., Remote Sensing of the Environment. Dubuque, IA, Kendall/Hunt: 3–15.Google Scholar
  78. Ricketson, O. Jr. and Kidder, A.V. 1930 An Archaeological Reconnaissance by Air in Central America. The Geographical Review XX(2): 177–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rudd, R. 1974 Remote Sensing: A Better View. North Scituate, MA, Duxbury Press.Google Scholar
  80. Sabins, F.F. Jr. 1986 Remote Sensing-Principles and Interpretation. 2nd edition. New York, NY, Freeman.Google Scholar
  81. Sader, S.A. 1986 Investigations of Forest Canopy Temperatures Recorded by the TIMS at H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest. In Kahle, A. and Abbott, E., eds, TIMS Data Users Workshop. Pasadena, CA, Jet Propulsion Laboratory Publication 86-38: 55–56.Google Scholar
  82. Schaber, G.G. and Gumerman, G. 1969 Infrared Scanning Images: An Archaeological Application. Science 164: 712–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. St. Joseph, J.K.S. 1966 The Uses of Air Photography: Nature and Man in a New Perspective. London, England, John Baker.Google Scholar
  84. Schowengerdt, R.A. 1983 Techniques for Image Processing and Classification in Remote Sensing. New York, NY, Academic Press.Google Scholar
  85. Sever, T.L. 1983 Feasibility Study to Determine the Utility of Remote Sensing in Archaeological Investigations. Earth Resources Laboratory, Report No. 227. National Space Technology laboratories, MS, NASA.Google Scholar
  86. — 1988 Remote Sensing. In Drinkard, J., Mattingly, G., and Miller, J.M., eds, Benchmarks In Time and Culture. Atlanta, GA, Scholars Press: 279–305.Google Scholar
  87. — 1990 Remote Sensing Application in Archaeological Research: Tracing Prehistoric Human Impact upon the Environment. Ph.D. dissertation. Boulder, University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  88. — 1992 Environmental Remote Sensing/GIS Analysis of the Peten Area and Environs of Guatemala, Mexico and Belize. Presented at the American Anthropological Association meetings, December 2, San Francisco, CA.Google Scholar
  89. Sever, T.L. and Wagner, D. 1991 Analysis of Prehistoric Roadways in Chaco Canyon Using Remotely Sensed Digital Data. In Charles Trombold, ed., Ancient Road Networks and Settlement Hierarchies in the New World. Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press: 42–52.Google Scholar
  90. Sever, T.L. and Wiseman, J. 1985 Remote Sensing and Archaeology: Potential for the Future. Report on a Conference, March 1-2, 1984. NSTL, MS, NASA, Earth Resources Laboratory.Google Scholar
  91. Shankman, P., Sever, T., and Gross, D. 1987 Cultural and Ecological Applications of Remote Sensing. Final Report of a Conference, April 23–25, Boulder, CO, University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  92. Sheets, P.D. 1992 Investigations at the Ceren Site, El Salvador: A Preliminary Report. Boulder, CO, Dept. of Anthropology, University of Colorado.Google Scholar
  93. Sheets, P. and Sever, T.L. 1988 High Tech Wizardry. Archaeology November/December: 28–35.Google Scholar
  94. Sever, T.L. — 1991 Prehistoric Footpaths in Costa Rica: Transportation and Communication in a Tropical Rainforest. In Trombold, Charles D., ed., Ancient Road Networks and Settlement Hierarchies in the New World. Cambridge, England, Cambridge University Press: 53–65.Google Scholar
  95. Short, N.M. 1982 The Landsat Tutorial Workbook; Basics of Satellite Remote Sensing. NASA Reference Publication No. 1078, Washington, DC, NASA.Google Scholar
  96. Stuart, G.E. 1992 Maya Heartland Under Siege. National Geographic 182(5): 94–107.Google Scholar
  97. Swain, P.H. and Davis, S.M., eds. 1978 Remote Sensing: The Quantitative Approach. New York, NY, McGraw-Hill Book Co.Google Scholar
  98. Tartaglia, L.J. 1977 Infrared Archaeological Reconnaissance. In Lyons, T.R. and Hitchcock, R., eds, Remote Sensing Techniques in Archaeology. Albuquerque, NM, Chaco Center: 35–50.Google Scholar
  99. Tomlinson, R.E 1984 Geographic Information Systems: A New Frontier. In Proceedings, International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling. Zurich, Switzerland: 1–14.Google Scholar
  100. Turner B.L. II and Harrison, P.D. 1981 Prehistoric Raised-Field Agriculture in the Maya Lowlands. Science 213(4506): 399–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. USGS and NOAA 1984 Landsat Data Users Handbook Revised. Sioux Falls, SD, U.S. Geological Survey.Google Scholar
  102. Watzinger, C. 1944 Theodor Wiegand, Ein Deutscher Archaeologe, 1864-1936. Munich, Germany, C.H. Beck.Google Scholar
  103. Wiegand, T. 1920 Sinai. Wissenschaftliche Veroffentlichungen des Deutsch-Turkischen Denkmalschutzkommandos. Heft 1. W de Gruyter, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  104. Wilford, J.N. 1992 Lofty Instruments Discern Traces of Ancient Peoples. New York Times March 10.Google Scholar
  105. Wilke, D.S. 1991 Protecting Rain Forests and Forager’s Rights Using Landsat Imagery. In Behrens, C. and Sever, T., eds, Applications of Space-age Technology in Anthropology. John C. Stennis Space Center, MS, NASA: 181–193.Google Scholar
  106. Willey, G.R. 1959 Aerial Photographic Maps as Survey Aids in the Viru Valley. In Heizer, R.F., ed., The Archaeologist at Work. New York, NY, Harper: 203–207.Google Scholar
  107. Wilson, D.R. 1975 Aerial Reconnaissance for Archaeology. Research Report No. 12, Council for British Archaeology, London, England.Google Scholar
  108. — 1982 Air Photo Interpretation for Archaeologists. New York, NY, St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  109. Wiseman, J. 1983 Letter to Dr. Hans Mark, Deputy Administrator, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, in behalf of the Coordinating Council of Archaeological Societies. 22 September, 1983.Google Scholar
  110. Wolfe, W.L. and Zissis, G. 1989 The Infrared Handbook. The Infrared Information Analysis Center, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas L. Sever

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations