HIV Prevention in Industrialized Countries

  • Kim Rivers
  • Peter Aggleton
Part of the Aids Prevention and Mental Health book series (APMH)

Abstract

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first diagnosed in the United States in the early 1980s, and since that time every country in the world has reported cases. In the short term, the prospect of a preventive vaccine is not encouraging.1 New therapeutic agents have offered some people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) a substantially improved quality of life and the possibility of a near-normal life span.2 However, the consequences of HIV/AIDS continue to be very serious even in countries where there are resources to pay for new treatments. A combination of social and behavioral change therefore remains essential in reducing the risk of HIV infection.2,3 Over the last 15 years, a great deal has been learned about the kinds of programs and interventions that are most effective in preventing HIV infection. In this chapter, we will describe and review some of the major HIV prevention initiatives that have taken place in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and selected countries in Western Europe.

Keywords

Europe Amid Income Tuberculosis Syringe 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Stryker J, Coates TJ, DeCarlo P, et al. Prevention of HIV infection. JAMA 1995; 273(14):1143–1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Coates TJ, Aggleton P, Gutzwiller F, et al. HIV prevention in developed countries. Lancet 1996; 348:1143–1148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Coleman LM, Ford NJ. An extensive literature review of the evaluation of HIV prevention programmes. Health Educ Res 1996; 11(3):327–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Colletta ND. Understanding Cross-cultural Child Development and Designing Programs for Children. Richmond, VA: Christian Children’s Fund; 1992.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Auer C. Women, children and HIV/AIDS. In: Long LD, Ankrah EM, eds. Women’s Experiences with HIV/AIDS: An International Perspective. New York: Columbia University Press; 1996:236–263.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Crawford J, Lawless S, Kippax S. Positive women and heterosexuality: problems of disclosure of serostatus to sexual partners. In: Aggleton P, Davies P, Hart G, eds. AIDS Activism and Alliances. London, England: Taylor & Francis; 1997:1–14.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bedimo AL, Bessinger R, Kissinger P. Reproductive choices among HIV-positive women. Soc Sci Med 1998; 46(2):171–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Strathdee SA, Hogg RS, Hanvelt R. Evaluating HIV/AIDS Prevention Programs in Canada: Where Do We Go From Here? Ottawa, Canada: Canadian Policy Networks Inc; 1996.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sharples KJ, Dickson NP, Paul C, et al. HIV/AIDS in New Zealand: An epidemic in decline? AIDS 1996; 10:1273–1278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    European Centre for Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS. AIDS surveillance in Europe. Quarterly report. December 1994.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wellings K, Field B. Stopping AIDS: AIDS/HIV Public Education and the Mass Media in Europe. Harlow, England: Longman; 1996.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Buzy JM, Gayle HD. The epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in women. In: Long LD, Ankrah EM, eds. Women’s Experiences with HIV/AIDS: An International Perspective. New York: Columbia University Press; 1996:181–204.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tawil O, Verster A, O’Reilly KR. Enabling approaches for HIV/AIDS prevention: Can we modify the environment and minimize the risk? AIDS 1995; 9:1299–1306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aggleton P. Success in HIV Prevention. Horsham, England: AVERT; 1997.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Aggleton P. Global priorities for HIV/AIDS intervention research. Int J STD AIDS 1996; 7(suppl 2):13–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Canadian AIDS Society and the National Health Promotion Demonstration Project. Paradigms Lost: Examining the Impact of a Shift from Health Promotion to Population Health on HIV/AIDS Policy and Programs in Canada. Ottawa, Canada: Canadian AIDS Society and the National Health Promotion Demonstration Project; 1997.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Aggleton P, Rivers K. Behavioral interventions for adolescents. In: Gibney L, DiClemente R, Vermund S, eds. Preventing HIV infection in developing countries. New York: Plenum Press; 1999:in press.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Baldo M. Youth and AIDS: adapting to an evolving epidemic. Paper presented at the 6th Congress on Adolescent Health/Youth Health. Vancouver, Canada; 1995.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dubois-Arber F, Paccaud E Assessing AIDS/HIV prevention: What do we know in Europe? Soc Prey Med 1994; 39(suppl 1):S3–S11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aggleton P. Behavior change communication. AIDS Educ Prey 1997; 9(2):111–123.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oakley A, Fullerton D, Holland J, et al. Sexual health education interventions for young people: A methodological overview. Br Med J 1995; 310:158–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Norwegian Board of Health. An Evaluation of AIDS Prevention in Norway: A Summary Report. Oslo, Norway: Norwegian Board of Health; 1995.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kok G, Kolker L, de Vroome E, et al. “Safe sex” and “compassion”: Public campaigns on AIDS in the Netherlands. In: Sandford T, ed. The Dutch Response to HIV. London, England: UCL Press; 1988:19–39.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Moatti JP, Dab W, Loundou H, et al. Impact on the general public of media campaigns against AIDS: A French evaluation. Health Policy 1992; 21:233–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Dubois-Arber F, Jeannin A, Meystre-Agustoni G, et al. Evaluation of the AIDS Prevention Strategy in Switzerland: Fifth Synthesis Report 1993–1995, abridged version. Lausanne, Switzerland: University Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine; 1996.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo. Estudio cuantitivo. Segundo barometro sanitario epigrafe. Conocimiento y actitudes sociales ante al SIDA. Madrid, Spain; 1993.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Servant AM. Love object—condoms with humor. Paper presented at VIIIth International Conference on AIDS, Amsterdam, Netherlands; 1992.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dubé LG, Reaidi G, Descombes C. Comparing affective and cognitive responses to informational vs emotional messages on AIDS prevention: a field study among Canadian young adults. Paper presented at IXth International Conference on AIDS, Berlin, Germany; 1993.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pollack M, Dur W, Vincineau M, et al. Evaluating AIDS prevention for men having sex with men: The west European experience. Soc Prey Med 1994; 39(suppl 1):S47–S60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kippax S, Connell RW, Dowsett GW, et al. Sustaining Safe Sex: Gay Communities Respond to AIDS. London, England: Falmer Press; 1993.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bottzauw J, Hermansen K, Tauris P. Alterations in the sexual habits of a group of homosexual persons after information about AIDS. Ungeskr Laeger 1989; 151:1920–1922.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Myers T, Kurtz RG, Tundiver F, et al. Predictors of change, poor outcome and premature drop-out in a randomized control study of AIDS education: The Talking Sex Project. In: Paccaud F, Vader JP, Gutzwiller F, eds. Assessing AIDS Prevention. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhauser Verlag; 1992:65–78.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Dubois-Arber F, Masur J-B, Husser D, et al. Evaluation of AIDS prevention among homosexual and bisexual men in Switzerland. Soc Sci Med 1993; 37(12):1539–1544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Van De Ven P, Campell D, Kippax S, et al. Factors associated with unprotected anal intercourse in gay men’s casual partnership in Sydney, Australia. AIDS Care 1997; 9(6):637–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kippax S, Noble J, Prestage G, et al. Sexual negotiation in the AIDS era: Negotiated safety revisited. AIDS 1997; 11:191–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bochow M, Chiarotti F, Davies P, et al. Sexual behavior of gay and bisexual men in eight European countries. AIDS Care 1996; 6(5):533–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hospers H, Blom C. HIV prevention activities for gay men in the Netherlands 1983–93. In: Sandfort T, ed. The Dutch Response to HIV. London, England: UCL Press; 1988:40–60.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Edwards M. AIDS policy communities in Australia. In: Aggleton P, Davies P, Hart G, eds. AIDS: Activism and Alliances. London, England: Taylor & Francis; 1997:41–57.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Schiltz M-A, Adam P. Reputedly effective risk reduction strategies and gay men. In: Aggleton P, Davies P, Hart G, eds. AIDS: Safety, Sexuality and Risk. London, England: Taylor and Francis; 1995:1–19.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stimson G. AIDS and injecting drug use in the United Kingdom, 1987–1993: The policy response and the prevention of the epidemic. Soc Sci Med 1995; 41(5):699–716.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Loxley WM, Bevan JS, Carruthers SJ. Age and injecting drug use revisited: The Australian study of HIV and injecting drug use. AIDS Care 1997; 9(6):661–670.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Des Jarlais DC, Friedman SR, Friedmann P, et al. HIV/AIDS-related behavior change among injecting drug users in different national settings. AIDS 1995; 9:611–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Rezza G, Rota MCh, Buning E, et al. Assessing HIV prevention among injecting drug users in European Community countries: A review. Soc Prey Med 1994; 39(suppl 1):S14–S46.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Alexander P. Making a living: Women who go out. In: Long LD, Ankrah EM, eds. Women’s Experiences. New York: Columbia University Press; 1996:Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Vanwesenbeeck I, de Graaf R. Sex work and HIV in the Netherlands: Policy, research and prevention. In: Sandford T, ed. The Dutch Response to HIV. London, England: UCL Press; 1998:86–106.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Aggleton R. Men Who Sell Sex. London, UCL Press; 1998.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Boulton M, Fitzpatrick R. Bisexual men in Britain. In: Aggleton P, eds. Bisexualities and AIDS: International Perspectives. London, England: Taylor and Francis Ltd; 1996:3–22.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hart G, Boulton M. Sexual behaviour in gay men: towards a sociology of risk. In: Aggleton P, Davies P, Hart G, eds. AIDS: Safety, Sexuality and Risk. London, England: Taylor & Francis; 1995:55–67.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    European Centre for Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS. AIDS Surveillance in Europe. Quarterly report. March 1995.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Conti S, Lepri AC, Farchi G, et al. AIDS: A major health problem among young Italian women. AIDS 1996; 10:407–411.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Elford J. HIV and AIDS in adolescence: Epidemiology. In: Sherr L, ed. AIDS and Adolescents. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers; 1997:25–50.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    European Study Group on Heterosexual Transmission of HIV. Comparison of female to male and male to female transmission of HIV in 563 stable couples. Br Med J 1992; 304:809–813.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Davies AG, Dominy NJ, Peters AD, et al. Gender differences in HIV risk behaviour of injecting drug users in Edinburgh. AIDS Care 1996; 8(5):517–527.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gallois C, Statham D, Smith S. Women and HIV/AIDS Education in Australia. Canberra, Australia: Commonwealth Department of Health, Housing and Community Services; 1992.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Giffin K. Beyond empowerment: Heterosexualities and the prevention of AIDS. Soc Sci Med 1998; 46(2): 151–161.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Long LD, Ankrah EM, eds. Women Experiences with HIV/AIDS: An International Perspective. New York: Columbia University Press; 1996.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gupta GR, Weiss E, Mane P. Talking about sex: A prerequisite for AIDS prevention. In: Long LD, Ankrah EM, eds. Women Experiences with HIV/AIDS: An International Perspective. New York: Columbia University Press; 1996:Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rivers K, Aggleton P. Men and the HIV Epidemic. New York: United Nations Development Programme, 1999.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Exner TM, Seal DW, Ehrhardt AA. A review of HIV interventions for at-risk women. AIDS Behav 1997; 1(2): 93–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Panos. AIDS and young people. In: AIDS Briefing 4. London: Panos; 1996:Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rosenthal D. Australian adolescents’ behaviors and beliefs about HIV/AIDS and other STDs. In: Shen L, ed. AIDS and Adolescents. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers; 1994:91–106.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Dunne M, Donald M, Lucke J, et al. Age-related increase in sexual behaviours and decrease in regular condom use among adolescents in Australia. Int J STDs AIDS 1994; 5:41–47.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    King AJC, Beazley RP, Warren WK, et al. Canada Youth and AIDS Study. Kingston, Canada: Social Program Evaluation Group; 1988.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Mann J, Tarantola DJM, Netter TW, eds. AIDS in the World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press; 1992.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Aggleton P, Warwick I. Young people, sexuality and AIDS education. In: Shen L, ed. AIDS and Adolescents. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers; 1997:79–90.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kippax S, Crawford J. Fact and fictions of adolescent risk. In: Shen L, ed. AIDS and Adolescents. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers; 1998:63–78.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Baldo M, Aggleton P, Slutkin G. Does sex education lead to earlier or increased sexual activity in youth? Poster presented at IXth International Conference on AIDS. Berlin, Germany; 1993.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Grunseit A, Kippax S, Aggleton P, et al. Sexuality and young people’s sexual behavior: A review of studies. J Adoles Res 1997; 12(4):421–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sherr L. Adolescents and AIDS in our midst. In: Sherr L, ed. AIDS and Adolescents. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Harwood Academic Publishers; 1997:5–24.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Svenson GR, Hanson BS. Are peer and social influences important component to include in HIV¡ªSTD prevention models? Eur J Public Health 1996; 6:203–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Blanchard M, Narring F, Michaud PA, et al. The effect of the Swiss Stop-AIDS campaigns 1987–1992: increase in condom use without promotion of sexual promiscuity. Poster presentation, IXth International Conference on AIDS. Berlin, Germany; 1993.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Daures JP, Chaix-Durand G, Maurin M, et al. Etude préliminaire sur la prévention des interruptions volontaires de grossesse (TVG) et des maladies sexuallement transmissibles (MST) chez l’adolescent par une information en classes de troisieme. Contraception-Fertilité Sex 1989; 17:1021–1026.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Grunseit A. Impact of HIV and Sexual Health Education on the Sexual Behaviour of Young People: A Review Update. Geneva, Switzerland: UNAIDS; 1997.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Feldman R, Crowley C. HIV services for women in east London: The match between provision and needs. In: Aggleton P, Davies P, Hart G, eds. AIDS: Activism and Alliances. London, England: Taylor & Francis; 1997: 122–141.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chauvin P, Mortier E, Carat F, et al. A new outpatient care facility for HIV-infected destitute populations in Paris, France. AIDS Care 1997; 9(4):451–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    van Ameijden E, van den Hoek A. AIDS among injecting drug users in the Netherlands: The epidemic and the response. In: Sandford T, ed. The Dutch Response to HIV. London, England: UCL Press; 1998:61–85.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kim Rivers
    • 1
  • Peter Aggleton
    • 1
  1. 1.Thomas Coram Research UnitInstitute of Education, University of LondonLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations