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Heat Transfer in Electronic Packages

  • Robert E. Simons
  • Vincent W. Antonetti
  • Wataru Nakayama
  • Sevgin Oktay

Abstract

It was thought that the invention of the transistor, with its relatively low power requirements, would greatly minimize, if not totally eliminate, all cooling concerns. Such thoughts, however, were short lived, as engineers sought to improve performance, cost, and reliability by packaging greater numbers of circuits in an ever-smaller space. In fact, power densities at the component level have increased dramatically over the years. In mainframe computers, chips may be found with power dissipations ranging between 20 and 40 W, and chips with power dissipation in excess of 10 W may be found in many PC and workstation applications. Considering one example from a mainframe computer, a 7 × 7-mm chip dissipating 30 W, results in a heat flux of more than 6 × 105 W/m2. As shown in Figure 4-1, this is only about two orders of magnitude less than that on the surface of the sun [1]. But the sun’s surface temperature is 6000°C, compared to a maximum operating temperature in the range of 100°C for a typical semiconductor chip.

Keywords

Heat Transfer Nusselt Number Thermal Resistance Rayleigh Number Heat Sink 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert E. Simons
    • 1
  • Vincent W. Antonetti
    • 2
  • Wataru Nakayama
    • 3
  • Sevgin Oktay
    • 4
  1. 1.Electronics Cooling ApplicationsUSA
  2. 2.Manhattan CollegeUSA
  3. 3.Tokyo Institute of TechnologyJapan
  4. 4.Oktay Enterprises InternationalFrance

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