## Abstract

It was thought that the invention of the transistor, with its relatively low power requirements, would greatly minimize, if not totally eliminate, all cooling concerns. Such thoughts, however, were short lived, as engineers sought to improve performance, cost, and reliability by packaging greater numbers of circuits in an ever-smaller space. In fact, power densities at the component level have increased dramatically over the years. In mainframe computers, chips may be found with power dissipations ranging between 20 and 40 W, and chips with power dissipation in excess of 10 W may be found in many PC and workstation applications. Considering one example from a mainframe computer, a 7 × 7-mm chip dissipating 30 W, results in a heat flux of more than 6 × 10^{5} W/m^{2}. As shown in Figure 4-1, this is only about two orders of magnitude less than that on the surface of the sun [1]. But the sun’s surface temperature is 6000°C, compared to a maximum operating temperature in the range of 100°C for a typical semiconductor chip.

## Keywords

Heat Transfer Nusselt Number Thermal Resistance Rayleigh Number Heat Sink## Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

## References

- 1.S. Oktay, R. J. Hannemann, and A. Bar-Cohen. “High Heat from a Small Package,”
*Mech. Eng.*, 108(3): pp. 36–42, 1986.Google Scholar - 2.M. Pecht, P. Lall, and S. J. Whelen. “Temperature Dependence of Microelectronic Device Failures,”
*Qual. Reliab. Eng. Int. J.*, 1990.Google Scholar - 3.M. Pecht, P. Lall, and E. Hakim. “The Influence of Temperature on Integrated Circuit Failure Mechanisms,” in
*Advances in Thermal Modeling of Electronic Components and Systems*—*Volume 3*, ed. by A. Bar-Cohen and A. D. Kraus, ASME/IEEE Press, New York, 1993.Google Scholar - 4.V. W. Antonetti and R. E. Simons. “Bibliography of Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment,”
*IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Tech.*, CHMT-8(2): pp. 289–295, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 5.R. E. Simons. “Bibliography of Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment—1986,” in
*Advances in Thermal Modeling of Electronic Components and Systems*—*Volume 1*, ed. by A. Bar-Cohen and A. D. Kraus, Hemisphere, New York, 1988.Google Scholar - 6.R. E. Simons. “Bibliography of Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment—1987 and 1988,” in
*Advances in Thermal Modeling of Electronic Components and Systems*—*Volume 2*, ed. by A. Bar-Cohen and A. D. Kraus, ASME Press, New York, 1990.Google Scholar - 7.R. E. Simons. “Bibliography of Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment—1989,” in
*Advances in Thermal Modeling of Electronic Components and Systems*—*Volume 3*, ed. by A. Bar-Cohen and A. D. Kraus, ASME/IEEE Press, New York, 1993.Google Scholar - 8.W. Nakayama. “Thermal Management of Electronic Equipment: A Review of Technology and Research Topics,”
*Appl. Mech. Rev.*, 39(12): pp. 1847–1868, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 9.J. H. Seely and R. C. Chu.
*Heat Transfer in Microelectronic Equipment*, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1972.Google Scholar - 10.A. D. Kraus and A. Bar-Cohen.
*Thermal Analysis and Control of Electronic Equipment*, Hemisphere, New York, 1983.Google Scholar - 11.K. J. Feldman, Y. M. Hong, P. L. Marjon, and D. Hahn. “Tests on Thermal Joint Compounds to 200°C,”
*AIAA 15th Thermophysics Conference*, 1980.Google Scholar - 12.D. P. Kennedy. “Heat Conduction in a Homogeneous Solid Circular Cylinder of Isotropie Media.” IBM Report TR 00.15072.699, 1959.Google Scholar
- 13.N. F. Khory. “The Impact of Die Bond Voids in Power Semiconductor Devices on Thermal Resistance and Reliability,”
*Proceedings of 1986 International Symposium on Microelectronics*, pp. 275–280, 1986.Google Scholar - 14.S. Oktay. “Parametric Study of Temperature Profiles in Chips Joined by Controlled Collapse Techniques,”
*IBM J. Res. Develop.*, 13(3): pp. 272–285, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 15.A. D. Kraus and A. Bar-Cohen.
*Design and Analysis of Heat Sinks*, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1995.Google Scholar - 16.J. E. Suderland and K. R. Johnson, “Shape Factors for Heat Conduction Through Bodies with Isothermal or Convective Boundary Conditions.”
*Trans, ASHRAE*, 70: pp. 237–241, 1964.Google Scholar - 17.G. N. Ellison.
*Thermal Computations for Electronic Equipment*, Van Nostrand Rein-hold, New York, 1984.Google Scholar - 18.J. F, Thompson, F. C. Thames, and C. W. Mastin. “Automatic Numerical Generation of Body-Fitted Curvilinear Coordinate Systems for Field Containing any Number of Arbitrary Two-Dimensional Bodies,”
*Comput. Phys.*, 15: pp. 299–319, 1974.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar - 19.P. W. Tuinenga.
*SPICE—A Guide to Circuit Simulation and Analysis Using PSPICE*, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1992.Google Scholar - 20.C. J. Keller and V. W. Antonetti. “Statistical Thermal Design for Computer Electronics,”
*Electron. Packag. Product.*, 19(3): pp. 55–62, 1979.Google Scholar - 21.U. P. Hwang, V. W. Antonetti, and C. J. Keller. “A Closed-Form Statistical Technique for Calculating Integrated Circuit Junction Temperatures,”
*Electron. Packag. Product.*, 21(1): pp. 259–265, 1981.Google Scholar - 22.V. W. Antonetti and M. M. Yovanovich. “Thermal Contact Resistance in Micro Electronic Equipment,”
*Int. J. Hybrid Microelectron.*, 7(3): pp. 44–50, 1984.Google Scholar - 23.M. G. Cooper, B. B. Mikic, and M. M. Yovanovich. “Thermal Contact Conductance,”
*Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer*, 12: pp. 279–300, 1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 24.M. M. Yovanovich. “Thermal Contact Correlations,” in
*Spacecraft Radiative Transfer and Temperature Control*, ed. by T. E. Horton, ed. AIAA*Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics*, Vol. 83, pp. 83–95, New York, 1982.Google Scholar - 25.V. W. Antonetti, T. D. Whittle, and R. E. Simons. “An Approximate Thermal Contact Conductance Correlation,”
*J. Electron. Packag.*, 115: pp. 131–134, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 26.S. S. Furkay. “Convective Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment—An Overview,”
*Int. J. Hybrid. Microelectron.*, 7(3): pp. 27–34, 1984.Google Scholar - 27.C. C. Tai and V. T. Lucas. “Thermal Characteristics of a Card-on-Board Electronic Package,”
*Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment*, ed. by S. Oktay and R.J. Moffat, ASME HTD-48, pp. 49–57, ASME, New York, 1985.Google Scholar - 28.A. Bar-Cohen. “Bounding Relations for Natural Convection Heat Transfer from Printed Circuit Boards,”
*Proc. IEEE*, 73(9): pp. 1388–1395, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 29.C. E. Johnson. “Evaluation of Correlations for Natural Convection Cooling of Electronic Equipment,” ASME HTD, 57: pp. 103–111, 1986.Google Scholar
- 30.W. Aung. “Fully Developed Laminar Free Convection Between Vertical Flat Plates Heated Asymmetrically,”
*Int J. Heat Mass Transfer*, 15: pp. 1577–1580, 1972.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar - 31.R. A. Wirtz and R. J. Stutzman. “Experiments on Free Convection Between Vertical Parallel Plates with Symmetric Heating,”
*ASME J. Heat Transfer*, 104: pp. 501–507, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 32.A. Bar-Cohen and W. M. Rohsenow. “Thermally Optimum Spacing of Vertical, Natural Convection Cooled, Parallel Plates,”
*ASME J. Heat Transfer*, 106: pp. 116–123, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 33.W. Aung, L. S. Fletcher, and V. Sernas. “Developing Laminar Free Convection Between Vertical Flat Plates with Asymmetric Heating,”
*Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer*, 15: pp. 2293–2308, 1972.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar - 34.D. L. Danielson, L. Tousignant, and A. Bar-Cohen. “Saturated Pool Boiling Characteristics of Commercially Available Perfluorinated Liquids,” in
*Proc. ASME/JSME Thermal Eng. Joint Conf.*, Vol. 3, ASME, New York, 1987.Google Scholar - 35.E. M. Sparrow, J. E. Niethammer, and A. Chaboki. “Heat Transfer and Pressure-Drop Characteristics of Arrays of Rectangular Modules in Electronic Equipment,”
*Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer*, 25: pp. 961–973, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 36.E. M. Sparrow, A. A. Yanezmoreno, and D. R. Otis. “Convective Heat Transfer Response to Height Differences in an Array of Block-Like Electronic Components,”
*Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer*, 27, pp. 469–473, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 37.K. Torikoshi, M. Kawazoe, and T. Kurihara, “Convective Heat Transfer Characteristics of Arrays of Rectangular Blocks Affixed to One Wall of a Channel,”
*ASME Winter Annual Meeting*, 1988.Google Scholar - 38.R. A. Wirtz and P. Dykshoorn. “Heat Transfer from Arrays of Flat Pacs in Channel Flow,”
*Proc. Fourth Annual Int. Electronics Packaging Society (IEPS) Conf.*, pp. 318–326, 1984.Google Scholar - 39.P. R. Souza-Mendes and W. F. Santos. “Heat Transfer and Pressure-Drop Experiments in Air-Cooled Electronic Arrays;’
*J. Thermophys.*, 1(4): pp. 373–378, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 40.E. M. Sparrow, S. B. Vemuri, and D. S. Kadle. “Enhanced Local Heat Transfer, Pressure-Drop, and Flow Visualization for Arrays of Block-Like Electronic Components,”
*Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer*, 26; pp. 689–699, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 41.N, Ashiwake, W, Nakayama, T. Daikoku, and F. Kobayashi. “Forced Convective Heat Transfer from LSI Packages in an Air-Cooled Wiring Card,” ASME HTD, 28: pp. 35–42, 1983.Google Scholar
- 42.D. E. Arvizu and R. J. Moffat. “The Use of Superposition in Calculating Cooling Requirements for Circuit Board Mounted Electronic Components,” IEEE CH1781-4/82, pp. 133–144, 1982.Google Scholar
- 43.A. Bar-Cohen and T. W. Simon. “Wall Superheat Excursions in the Boiling Incipience of Dielectric Fluids,”
*Heat Transfer Eng.*, 9(3); pp. 19–31, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 44.U. P. Hwang and K. P. Moran. “Boiling Heat Transfer Off Silicon Integrated Circuit Chips Mounted on a Substrate,”
*Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment*, ASME HTD-20, pp. 53–60, ASME, New York, 1981.Google Scholar - 45.F. P. Incropera. “Liquid Immersion Cooling of Electronic Components,”
*Heat Transfer in Electronic and Microelectronic Equipment*, ed. by A. Bergles, pp. 407–444, Hemisphere, New York, 1990Google Scholar - 46.S. Oktay. “Departure from Natural Convection (DNC) in Low Temperature Boiling Heat Transfer Encountered in Microelectronics LSI Devices,”
*Proceedings of the 7th International Heat Transfer Conference*, pp. 120–125, 1982.Google Scholar - 47.W. Nakayama, T. Nakajima, and S. Hirasawa. “Heat Sink Studs Having Enhanced Boiling Surfaces for Cooling of Microelectronic Components,” ASME Paper No. 84-WA/HT-89, 1984. 1984 ASME Winter Annual Meeting.Google Scholar
- 48.I. Mudawar and D. C. Wadsworth. “Critical Heat Flux from a Simulated Chip to a Confined Rectangular Impinging Jet of Dielectric Liquid,”
*Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer*, 34(6); pp. 1465–1479, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 49.R. Siegal and J. R. Howell.
*Thermal Radiation Heat Transfer*, Hemisphere, New York, 1981.Google Scholar - 50.B. Siegal. “Applying the Electrical Test Method to Thermal Characterization of MOS Integrated Circuits,”
*Proceedings of SEMI-THERM*, 1985.Google Scholar - 51.F. F. Oettinger. “Thermal Evaluation of VLSI Package Using Test Chips—A Critical Review,”
*Solid State Technology*, 27(2): pp. 169–179, February 1984.Google Scholar - 52.R. J. Hannemann. “Microscopic Device Thermal Resistance: A Format for Standardization,”
*Heat Transfer in Electronic Equipment*, ASME HTD-20: pp. 39–48, 1981.Google Scholar - 53.U. P. Hwang. “Thermal Design Using Turbulators for Air-Cooled Electronic Modules on Card Package,”
*Proc. of National Electronic Packaging and Production Conf. (NEPCON)*, pp. 441–445, 1984.Google Scholar - 54.
*Book of SEMI Standards*, Vol. 4, Packaging Division, Semiconductor Equipment and Materials International, Mountain View, CA, 1990.Google Scholar - 55.P. Ngai. “Mathematical Modeling in Cooling of Microcomputers and Electronic Boxes by Natural Ventilation,”
*Proceedings International Electronics Packaging Society Conference*, pp. 91–101, 1983.Google Scholar - 56.G. N. Ellison. “Methodologies for Thermal Analysis of Electronic Components and Systems,” in
*Advances in Thermal Modeling of Electronic Components and Systems*—*Volume 3*, ed, by A. Bar-Cohen and A. D. Kraus, ASME/IEEE Press, New York, 1993.Google Scholar - 57.S. Chin. “Keeping the PC Cool,”
*Electron. Products*, pp. 47–50, September 1986.Google Scholar - 58.J. Bartoszek. “Thermal Management in Small Systems,”
*International Society for Hybrid Microelectronics*, Silver Spring, MD. ISHM Technical Monograph No., 6984-003, pp. 215–225, 1984.Google Scholar - 59.D. S. Steinberg.
*Cooling Techniques for Electronic Equipment*, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1980.Google Scholar - 60.A. Bar-Cohen. “Thermal Management of Air and Liquid-Cooled Multiehip Modules,”
*23 ASME AIChE Heat Transfer Conference*, 1985.Google Scholar - 61.K. Okutani, K. Otsuka, K. Sahara, and K. Satoh. “Packaging Design of a SiC Ceramic Multi-Chip RAM Module,”
*Proceedings of the Fourth International Electronics Packaging Society Conf.*, pp. 299–304, 1984.Google Scholar - 62.M. Kohara. “High Thermal Conduction Package Technology for Flip Chip Devices,”
*IEEE Trans. Components Hybrids Manuf. Tech.*, CHMT-6(3); pp. 267–271, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 63.S. Oktay, B. Dessauer, and J. I. Horvath. “New Internal and External Cooling Enhancements for the Air Cooled IBM 4381 Module,”
*IEEE International Conf. on Computer Design*, pp. 2–5, 1983.Google Scholar - 64.J. S. Fitch. “A One-Dimensional Thermal Model for the VAX 9000 Multi Chip Units,”
*ASME Winter Annual Meeting*, 1990.Google Scholar - 65.S. Heng and J. Pei. “Air Impingement Cooled Pin-Fin Heat Sink for Multi-Chip Unit,”
*Proc. of National Electronic Packaging and Production Conf. (NEPCON-WEST)*, Vol. 2, pp. 1156–1165, 1991.Google Scholar - 66.R. C. Chu, U. P. Hwang, and R. E. Simons. “Conduction Cooling for an LSI Package: An One-Dimensional Approach,”
*IBM J. Res. Develop.*26(1): pp. 45–55, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 67.R. E. Simons. “The Evolution of IBM High Performance Cooling Technology,”
*IEEE Trans, Components Packaging Hybrids Manuf. Tech.*, CPMT-Part A-18(4): pp. 805–811, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 68.M. L. Zumbrunnen. “Materials and Processing Approaches for High Performance Electronic Cooling,”
*Proc. of 4th Electronic Materials and Processes Congress*, pp. 399–403, 1991.Google Scholar - 69.T. Watari and H. Murano. “Packaging Technology for the NEC SX Supercomputer,”
*Proc. of the 35th Elec. Comp. Conf.*, pp. 192–198, 1985.Google Scholar - 70.H. Murano and T. Watari. “Packaging Technology for the NEC SX-3 Supercomputers,”
*Proc. Intl. Symp. Adv. in Interconnection and Packaging*, pp. 78–90, 1990.Google Scholar - 71.H. Yamamoto, Y. Udagawa, and M. Suzuki. “Cooling System for FACOM M-780 Large-Scale Computer,”
*Proceedings of the International Symposium on Cooling Technology for Electronic Equipment*, pp. 96–109, 1987.Google Scholar - 72.M. Suzuki, Y. Udagawa, and H. Yamamoto. “Conductive Liquid Cooling for the FACOM VP2000 Supercomputer,”
*Proceedings of the 9th Annual International Electronics Packaging Society Conference*, Vol. 1, pp. 118–124, 1989.Google Scholar - 73.T. Kano, M. Takaemae, and H. Kawashima. “Cooling and Power Techniques for the M-1800 Model Group,”
*FUJITSU*, 42(2): pp. 132–138, 1991.Google Scholar - 74.S. R. Cray, Jr. “Immersion Cooled High Density Electronic Assembly,” U. S. Patent No. 4,590,538, May 1986.Google Scholar
- 75.M. Mansuria. “Application of the Thermoelectric Cooler for Electronic Packaging Cooling,”
*Proceedings of the 11th Annual International Electronics Packaging Society Conference*, Vol. 1, pp. 251–265, 1991.Google Scholar - 76.W. R. Hamburgen and J. S. Fitch. “Packaging a 150-W Bipolar ECL Microprocessor,”
*Proceeding of the 42nd Electronic Components and Technology Conference*, pp. 412–422, 1992.Google Scholar - 77.T. Kishimoto and T. Ohsaki. “VLSI Packaging Technique Using Liquid Cooled Channels,”
*Proceedings of the 36th Electronic Components Conference*, pp. 595–601, 1986.Google Scholar - 78.D. B. Tuckerman and R.F. Pease. “High Performance Heat Sinking for VLSI,”
*IEEE Electron. Device Lett.*, EDL-2(5): pp. 126–129, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 79.E. M. Sparrow and E. D. Larson. “Heat Transfer from Pin-Fins Situated in an Oncoming Longitudinal Flow Which Turns to Crossflow,”
*Intl. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer*, Vol. 25, No. 5, pp. 603–614, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 80.E. M. Sparrow, P. C. Stryker, and C. A. Altemani. “Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Flow Passages That are Open Along Their Lateral Edges,”
*Intl. J. of Heat and Mass Transfer*, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 731–740, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar - 81.B. R. Hollworth and M. Durbin. “Impingement Cooling of Electronics,”
*ASME HTD*, Vol. 111, pp. 89–96, 1989.Google Scholar - 82.R. A. Wirtz, B. R. Hollowrth, and H. A. Fuller. “An Infrared Thermographic Study of Convection in an Array of Surface Mounted Components,”
*Proc. 5th Annual Intl. Elec. Packaging Soc. (IEPS) Conf.*, pp. 495–507, 1985.Google Scholar - 83.T. T. Hamadh. “Impingement Cooling of a Simulated Electronic Package With a Square Array of Round Jets,”
*ASME-HTD*, Vol. 111, pp. 107–112, 1989.Google Scholar - 84.C. Hilbert, S. Sommerfeldt, O. Gupta, and D. J. Herrell. “High performance air cooled heat sinks for integrated circuits,”
*IEEE Trans. CHMT*, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 1022–1031, 1990.Google Scholar - 85.C. Hilbert, S. Sommerfeldt, O. Gupta, and D. J. Herrell. “A low pressure air cooling system for high performance modules,”
*Proc. Natl. Elec. Packaging and Production Conference—NEPCON West*, Vol. 2, pp. 1667–1675, Anaheim, CA, 1990.Google Scholar - 86.N. Goldberg. “Narrow Channel Forced Air Heat Sink,”
*IEEE Trans. CHMT*, Vol. 7, pp. 154–159, 1984.Google Scholar - 87.M. Mahalingham and J. Andrews. “High Performance Air Cooling for Microelectronics,”
*Cooling Technology for Electronic Equipment*, W. Aung, ed., Hemisphere, New York, NY, pp. 139–156, 1988.Google Scholar - 88.R. W. Knight, J. S. Goodling, and B. E. Gross. “Optimal Thermal Design of Air Cooled Forced Convection Finned Heat Sinks—Experimental Verification,”
*IEEE Trans. CHMT*, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 754–760, 1992.Google Scholar - 89.R. W. Knight, J. S. Goodling, and B. E. Gross. “Heat Sink Optimization with Application to Microchannels,”
*IEEE Trans, CHMT*, Vol 15, No. 5, pp. 832–842, 1992.Google Scholar - 90.G. N. Ellison. “Methodologies for Thermal Analysis of Electronic Components and Systems,”
*Advances in Thermal Modeling of Electronic Components and Systems*, Volume 3, ed. by A. Bar-Cohen and A. D. Kraus, ASME/IEEE Press, New York, 1993.Google Scholar - 91.H. R. Jacobs and J. P. Hartnett (eds.). “Thermal Engineering: Emerging Technologies and Critical Phenomena,”
*NSE Thermal Sciences Workshop Report*, pp. 139–177, 1991.Google Scholar - 92.Rao R. Tummala and Michael Pecht “Japan’s Electronic Packaging Technologies’ Electronic Manufacturing and Packaging in Japan, pp. 59–96 Japanese Technology Evaluation Center, Loyola College, Maryland, 1995.Google Scholar
- 93.R. R. Tummala.
*Proceedings of Emerging Microelectronic and Information Technologies*, pp. 1–8, 1996.Google Scholar