## Abstract

It was thought that the invention of the transistor, with its relatively low power requirements, would greatly minimize, if not totally eliminate, all cooling concerns. Such thoughts, however, were short lived, as engineers sought to improve performance, cost, and reliability by packaging greater numbers of circuits in an ever-smaller space. In fact, power densities at the component level have increased dramatically over the years. In mainframe computers, chips may be found with power dissipations ranging between 20 and 40 W, and chips with power dissipation in excess of 10 W may be found in many PC and workstation applications. Considering one example from a mainframe computer, a 7 × 7-mm chip dissipating 30 W, results in a heat flux of more than 6 × 10^{5} W/m^{2}. As shown in Figure 4-1, this is only about two orders of magnitude less than that on the surface of the sun [1]. But the sun’s surface temperature is 6000°C, compared to a maximum operating temperature in the range of 100°C for a typical semiconductor chip.

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Nickel Carbide Helium Epoxy Chlorine## Preview

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