Advertisement

Therapy of Hypertension in End-Stage Renal Disease

  • Louise F. Roy
  • Frans H. H. Leenen
Part of the Topics in Renal Medicine book series (TIRM, volume 10)

Abstract

Arterial hypertension is observed in approximately 15%–20% of the general population. In contrast, 80%–90% of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are hypertensive (blood pressure greater than 140/90 mmHg); half of them will remain hypertensive once dialysis is started and will therefore need some form of pharmacotherapy [1,2]. This chapter will deal briefly with relevant aspects of the epidemiology and pathophysiology of hypertension in ESRD and more extensively with the therapy of this problem as a risk factor for the high cardiovascular mortality observed in this population.

Keywords

Peritoneal Dialysis Chronic Renal Failure Arterial Hypertension Calcium Antagonist Blood Viscosity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Faubert PF, Porush JG. 1987. Managing hypertension in chronic renal disease. Geriatrics 42:49–58.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vendemia F, D’Amico G. 1988. Antihypertensive therapy in dialysed patients. Contrib Nephrol 61:161–170.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Blythe WB. 1985. Natural history of hypertension in renal parenchymal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 5:A50–A56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zuchelli P, Santori A, Zuccala A. 1988. Genesis and control of hypertension in hemo-dialysis patients. Semin Nephrol 8:163–168.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cambi V, Menta R, Castiglioni A, Bono F, Ferrari ME, Paganelli E, Nizzoli M. 1987. Different dialytic modalities in the management of hypertension in uremic patients. Contrib Nephrol 54:218–225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Leenen FHH, Smith DL, Khanna R, Oreopoulos DG. 1985. Changes in left ventricular hypertrophy and function in hypertension patients started on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Am Heart J 101:102–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gilmour J, Wu G, Khanna R, Schilling H, Mitwalli A, Oreopoulos DG. 1985. Long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Periton Dial Bull 5:112.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Degoulet P, Legrain M, Réach I, Aimé F, Devriès C, Rojas P, Jacobs C. 1981. Mortality risk factors in patients treated by chronic hemodialysis. Report of the Diaphane Collaborative Study. Nephron 31:103–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Broyer M, Brunner FP, Brynger H, Fassbinder W, Guillou PJ, Oulès R, Rizzoni G, Seiwood NH, Wing AJ. 1986. Registry report. Demography of dialysis and transplantation in Europe, 1984. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1:1–8.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Canadian Renal Failure Register. 1986. 1985 report Montreal: Kidney Foundation of Canada.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Canadian Organ Replacement Register 1990}. 1988 report. Don Mills, Ontario: Hospital Medical Records Institute.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Heyka RJ, Vidt DG. 1989. Control of hypertension in patients with chronic renal failure. Cleveland Clin J Med 56:65–76.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leenen FHH, Harmsen E. 1991. Antihypertensives drugs and cardiac trophic mechanisms. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 17(Suppl 2):S50–S57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Vincenti F, Amend WJ, Abele J, Feduska NJ, Salvatierra O. 1980. The role of hypertension in hemodialysis-associated atherosclerosis. Am J Med 68:363–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baldwin DS, Neugarten J. 1985. Treatment of hypertension in renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 5:A57–A70.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim KE, Onesti GL, Swartz CD. 1975. Hemodynamics of hypertension in uremia. Kidney Int 8:S155–S162.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim KE, Onesti G, Del Guercio ET, Greco J, Fernandes M, Eidelson B, Swartz C. 1980. Sequential hemodynamic changes in end-stage renal disease and the anephric state during volume expansion. Hypertension 2:102–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vertes V, Cangiano JL, Berman LB, Gould A. 1969. Hypertension in end-stage renal disease. N Engl J Med 280:978–981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wilkinson SP, Spence VA, Stewart WK. 1989. Arterial stiffening and reduced cutaneous hyperaemic response in patients with end-stage renal failure. Nephron 52:149–153.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Koomans HA, Roos JC, Dorhout Mees EJ, Delawi IMK. 1985. Sodium balance in renal failure: a comparison of patients with normal subjects under extremes of sodium intake. Hypertension 7:714–721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guyton, AC, Coleman TG, Young DB, Lohmeier TE, DeClue JW. 1980. Salt balance and long-term blood pressure control. Annu Rev Med 31:15–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Coleman TG, Bower JD, Lanford HG, Guyton AC. 1970. Regulation of arterial pressure in the anephric state. Circulation 42:509–514.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Weidmann P, Maxwell MH. 1975. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in terminal renal failure. Kidney Int 8:S219–S234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Igarashi Y, Suzuki H, Itnaguku T, Saito I, Saruto T. 1987. Hypertension in patients on chronic hemodialysis: the role of the renin-angiotensin system. Jpn Circ J 51:479–484.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Leenen FHH, Galla SJ, Geyskes GG, Murdaugh V, Shapiro AP. 1977. Effects of hemodialysis and saline loading on body fluid compartments, plasma renin activity and blood pressure in patients on chronic hemodialysis. Nephron 18:93–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Beretta-Piccoli C, Weidmann P, DeChâtel R, Reubi F. 1976. Hypertension associated with early stage kidney disease. Am J Med 61:739–747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Davies DL, Beevers DG, Briggs JD, Medina AM, Robertson JIS, Schalekamp MA, Brown JJ, Lever AF, Morton JJ, Tree M. 1973. Abnormal relation between exchangeable sodium and the renin-angiotensin system in malignant hypertension with chronic renal failure. Lancet 1:683–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Acosta JH. 1982. Hypertension in chronic renal disease. Kidney Int 22:702–712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schalekamp MA, Beevers DG, Briggs JD, Brown JJ, Davies DL, Fraser R, Lebel M, Lever AF, Medina A, Morton JJ, Robertson JIS, Tree M. 1973. Hypertension in chronic renal failure. An abnormal relation between sodium and the renin—angiotensin system. Am J Med 55:379–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nakashima Y, Fouad FM, Nakamoto S, Textor SC, Bravo EL, Tarazi RC. 1987. Localization of autonomic nervous system dysfunction in dialysis patients. Am J Nephrol 7:375–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Izzo JL, Santarosa PR, Larrabee PS, Smith RJ, Kallay MC. 1987. Increased plasma norepinephrine and sympathetic nervous activity in essential hypertensive and uremic humans: effects of clonidine. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 10(Suppl 12):S225–S227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nozuki M, Tachibana Y, Yoshinaga K. 1987. Increased plasma immunoreactive neuropeptide Y Concentrations in phaeochromocytoma and chronic renal failure. J Hypertension 5:749–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Campese VM, Romoff MS, Levitan D, Lane K, Massry S. 1981. Mechanisms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction in uremia. Kidney Int 20:246–253.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Raschev W, Schoemig A, Kreye VA, Ritz E. 1982. Diminished vascular response to noradrenaline in experimental chronic uremia. Kidney Int 21:20–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Leenen FHH, Shah P, Boer WH, Khanna R, Oreopoulos DG. 1983. Hypotension on CAPD: An approach to treatment. Periton Dial Bull 3 (Suppl):S33–S35.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Weidmann P, Schohn D, Laederach K, Uehlinger DE, Gnadinger MP, Shaw S. 1987. Catecholamines and their possible role in hypertension associated with impaired renal function. Contrib Nephrol 54:159–176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Zuccala A, Santoro A, Ferrari G, Zucchelli P. 1988. Pathogenesis of hypertension in hemodialysis patients: a pharmacological study. Kidney Int 34(Suppl 25):S19O–S191.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Schohn D, Weidmann P, John H, Beretta-Piccoli C. 1985. Norepinephrine-related mechanism in hypertension accompanying renal failure. Kidney Int 28:814–822.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stokes GS, Norris LA, Marwood JF, Monaghan JC, Caterson RJ. 1988. A Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor which circulated in renal failure but not in essential hypertension. Prog Biochem Pharmacol 23:46–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Simon G. 1989. Different cation transport inhibitor in malignant renal hypertension and in uremia. Clin Sci 76:329–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Izumo H, Izumo S, DeLuise M, Flier JS. 1984. Erythrocyte Na, K pump in uremia. Acute correction of a transport defect by hemodialysis. J Clin Invest 74:581–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Krazesinski JM, Rorive G. 1983. Sodium-lithium countertransport in red cells. N Engl J Med 309:987–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kariya K, Sano H Yamanishi J, Saito K, Furuta Y, Fukuzaki H. 1986. A circulating Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, erythrocyte sodium transport and hypertension in patients with chronic renal failure. Clin Exp Hypertension Theory Pract A8(2):167–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Blaustein MP. 1977. Sodium ions, calcium ions, blood pressure regulation and hypertension: a reassessment and a hypothesis. Am J Physiol 232:C165–C173.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Boero R, Guarena C, Berto IM, Deabate MC, Rosati C, Quarello F, Piccoli G. 1988. Erythrocyte Na, K pump activity and arterial hypertension in uremic dialyzed patients. Kidney Int 34:691–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Engelhardt I, Flemming B, Matzke J, Mü ller O, Scholze J, Precht K. 1987. Erythrocyte sodium transport in normotensive and hypertensive patients on chronic hemodialysis, acute effect of treatment. Nephron 46:258–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kesteloot H. 1984. Epidemiological studies on the relationship between sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium and arterial blood pressure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6:S192–S196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Nieman LK, Davis FB, Davis PJ, Cunningham EE, Gutman, S, Blas SD, Schoenl M. 1983. Effect of end-stage renal disease on responsiveness to calmodulin and thyroid hormone of calcium-ATPase in human red blood cells. Kidney Int 24(Suppl 16): S167–S170.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Weinberg MS, Trebbin WM, Solomon RJ. 1986. Urinary kininogen: a possible regulator of icinin formation in normal individuals and subject with essential hypertension, end-stage renal disease and liver disease. Adv Exp Med Biol pTA:119–125.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Zuccelli P, Zuccala A, Degli Esposti E, Santoro A, Sturani A. 1987. Pathophysiology and management of hypertension in hemodialysis patients, contrib Nephrol 54:209–217.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rascher W, Tulassay T, Lang RE}. 1985. Atrial natriuretic peptide in plasma of volume overloaded children with chronic renal failure. Lancet 2:303–305.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pamnani MB, Haddy FJ. 1988. Role of atrial natriuretic factor in reduced renal mass saline hypertension. Prog Biochem Pharmacol 23:55–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Nonast-Daniel B, Schaffer J, Frei U. 1989. Hemodynamics in hemodialysis patients treated with recombinant human Erythropoietin. Contrib Nephrol 76:283–291.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Steffen HM, Brunner R, Muller R, Degenhardt S, Pollok M, Lang R, Baldmus CA. 1989. Peripheral hemodynamics blood viscosity and the renin—angiotensin system in hemodialysis patients under therapy with recombinant human erythropoietin. Contrib Nephrol 76:292–298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Samtleben W, Baldamus CA, Bommer J, Fassbinder W, Nonast-Daniel B, Gurland HJ. 1988. Blood pressure changes during treatment with recominant human erythropoietin. Contrib Nephrol 66:114–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fowler NO, Holmes JC. 1964. Dextran-exchange anemia and reduction in blood viscosity in the heart-lung preparation. Am Heart J 68:204–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Raine AEG. 1988. Hypertension, blood viscosity, and cardiovascular mortality in renal failure: implications of erythropoietin therapy. Lancet 1:97–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Brunner R, Steffen HM, Pollock M, Heidel M, Muller R, Degenhardt S, Baldamus CA. 1989. Blood rheology in hemodialysis patients treated with recombinant human erythropoietin. Contrib Nephrol 76:306–314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Neff MS, Kim KE, Persoff M, Onesti G, Swartz C. 1971. Hemodynamics of uremic anemia. Circulation 43:876–883.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Silberberg JS, Racine N, Barré PE, Sniderman AD. 1990. Regression of left ventricular hypertrophy in dialysis patients following correction of anemia with recombinant human erythropoietin. Can J Cardiol 6:1–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Levin N 1989. Management of blood pressure changes during recombinant human erythropoietin therapy. Semin Nephrol 9(Suppl 2):16–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Logan AG. 1984. Report of the Canadian Hypertension Society’s consensus Conference on the management of mild hypertension. Can Med Assoc J 131:1053–1056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    The 1988 Report of the Joint National Committee on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 148:1023–1038.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Cruickshank JM, Thorp JM, Zacharias FJ 1987. Benefits and potential harm of lowering high blood pressure. Lancet 1:581–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Larochelle P, Bass MJ, Birkett NJ, DeChamplain J, Myers MG. 1986. Recommendations from the Consensus Conference on hypertension in the elderly. Can Med Assoc J 135: 741–745.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Heyka RJ, Paganini EP. Blood pressure control in chronic dialysis patients. In Maher JF (ed), Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis, third edition, pp. 772–787.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Bricker NS. 1982. Sodium homeostasis in chronic renal disease. Kidney Int 21:886–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kramer BK, Ress KM, Ulshofer TM, Risler T. 1988. Hemodynamic and hormonal effects of low or high sodium hemodialysis. Kidney Int 34(Suppl 25):S192–S195.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Leenen, FHH, Buda AJ, Smith DL, Farrel S, Levine DZ, Uldall PR. 1984. Hemodynamic changes during acetate and bicarbonate hemodialysis. Artif Organs 8:411–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Mion C, Slingeneyer A, Canaud B. 1986. Pathophysiology and management of hypertension in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Contrib Nephrol 54:202–209.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Slingeneyer A, Canaud B, Mion C. 1983. Permanent loss of ultrafiltration capacity of the peritoneum in long-term peritoneal dialysis. An epidemiological study. Nephron 33:133.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mactier RA, Khanna R. 1987. Control of blood pressure on CAPD. Int J Artif Organs 10:216–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Henderson LW. 1980. Hemofiltration for the treatment of hypertensions associated with end-stage renal failure. Artif Organs 4:103–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Quellhoerst E, Schunemann B, Hildebrand U, Newmann W. 1982. Hypertension and haemofiltration. Contrib Nephrol 32:46–55.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Batlle DC, von Riotte A, Lang. 1986. Delayed hypotensive response to dialysis in hypertensive patients with end-stage renal disease. Am J Nephrol 6:14–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Maynard JC, Cruz C, Kleerkoper M, Levin NW. 1986. Blood pressure response to changes in serum ionized calcium during hemodialysis. Ann Intern Med 104:358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rane A, Villeneuve JP, Stone WJ, Nies AS, Wilkinson GR, Branch RA. 1978. Plasma binding and disposition of furosemide in the nephrotic syndrome and in uremia. Clin Pharmacol Ther 24:199–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Brater DC, Anderson SA, Brown-Cartwright D. 1986. Response to furosemide in chronic renal insufficiency: rationale for limited doses. Clin Pharmacol Ther 40:134–139.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Inone M, Okajima K, Iton K, Ando Y, Watanabe N, Yasaka T, Nagase S, Morino Y. 1987. Mechanism of furosemide resistance in analbuminemic rats and hypoalbuminemic patients. Kidney Int 32:198–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kleinknecht D, Ganeral D, Gonzalez-Duque LA, Fermanian J. 1976. Furosemide in acute oliguric renal failure. A controlled trial. Nephron 17:51–58.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Wilcok CS, Guzman NJ, Mitch WE, Kelly RA, Maroni BJ, Souney PF, Rayment CM, Braun L, Colucci R, Loon NR. 1987. Na, K, and BP homeostasis in man during furosemide: effects of prazosin and captopril. Kidney Int 31:135–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Mäher JF. 1989. Pharmacological considerations for renal failure and dialysis. In Maher JF (ed), Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis, third edition, pp. 1018–1076.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Lardinois CK, Neuman SL. 1988. The effects of antihypertensive agents on serum lipids and lipoproteins. Arch Intern Med 148:1280–1288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Guickshank, Prichard (ed). 1987. Beta-blockers in Clinical Practice. London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bennett WM, Aronoff GR, Morrison G, Golper TA, Pulliam J, Wolfson M, Singer I. 1983. Drug prescribing in renal failure: doses guidelines for adults. Am J Kidney Dis 3:155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Campese V, Feinstein EI, Gura V, Mason WD, Massry SG. 1985. Pharmacokinetics of atenolol in patients treated with chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. J Clin Pharmacol. 23:393.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Sintetos AL, Hulse J, Pritchett ELC. 1987. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of esmolol administered as an intravenous bolus. Clin Pharmacol Ther 41:112–117.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Flaherty JF, Wong B, LaFollette G, Warnock DG, Hulse JD, Gambertoglio JG. 1989. Pharmacokinetics of esmolol and ASL-8123 in renal failure. Clin Pharmacol Ther 45: 321–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    White RP, Rubin AL. Blood pressure control in chronic dialysis patients. In Drukker W, Parsons FM, Maher JF (eds), Replacement of Renal Function by Dialysis, second edition, pp. 575–587.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Grundy SM: Management of hyperlipidemia of kidney disease. Kidney Int 37:847–853.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Van Nguyen P, Cleroux J, Peterson M, Leenen FHH. 1990. β-blockade with intrinsic sympathetic activity modifies favorably exercise-induced changes in plasma lipoproteins. J Appl Physiol 69:485–489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Bauer JH, Brooks CS. 1979. The long-term effect of propranolol therapy on renal function. Am J Med 66:405–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Jacobsen BA, Fjeldborg P. 1986. Renal hemodynamics during propranolol treatment in patients with arterial hypertension and chronic renal failure. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 46:289–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Snyder SH, Reynolds IJ. 1985. Calcium-antagonist drugs. Receptor interactions that clarify therapeutic effects N Engl J Med 313:995–1002.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Edgar B, Lundborg P, Regardh CG. 1987. Clinical pharmacokinetics of felodipine. Drugs 34(Suppl 3):16–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Edgar B, Aurell M, Johnsson G, Regardh CG, Shansky C. 1987. Effects of impaired renal function on the pharmacokinetics of felodipine. Drugs 34(Suppl 3):31–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Aronoff GR. 1984. Pharmacokinetics of nitrendipine in patients with renal failure: comparison to normal subjects. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6(Suppl 7):S974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Bambauer R, Jutzler GA, Weber U, Walter R, Keller HE. 1988. Nitrendipine in patients with end-stage renal disease and hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 12(Suppl 4): S133–135.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Weidmann P, Gnadinger MP, Schohn D, Riesen W, Jahn H. 1989. Antihypertensive and hypouricaemic effects of nitrendipine in chronic renal failure. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 36: 223–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Salvetti A, Bozzo MV, Graziola M, Abdel-Haq B. 1987. Acute hemodynamic effect of nifedipine in hypertensives with chronic failure: the influence of volume status. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 10(Suppl 10):S143–146.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Weidmann P, Schohn D, Gnadinger MP, Burgisser E, Ferrier C, Jahn H. 1989. Hypertensive dysregulation and its modification by calcium channel blockade in monoliguric renal failure. Am J Nephrol 9:269–278.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Riegel W, Horl WH, Heidland A. 1986. Long-term effects of nifedipine on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in hypertensive hemodialyzed patients. Klin Wochenschr 64: 1124–1130.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Katzman PL, Hulthen UL, Hokfelt B. 1987. Glucose tolerance and secretion and clearance of insulin during long-term felodipine treatment. Drugs 34(Suppl 3):93–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Riegel W, Horl WH, Heidland A. 1986. Long-term effect of nifedipine on plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in hypertensive hemodialysed patients. Klin Wochenschr 64:1291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Leonetti G, Terzoli L, Rupoli L, Gradnik R, Zanchetti A. 1987. Renal effects of felodipine in hypertension. Drugs 34(Suppl 3):59–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Muir AL, Wathen CG. 1987. The use of felodipine in the treatment of severe hypertension. Drugs 34(Suppl 3):120–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Harris DCH, Hammond WS, Burke TJ. 1987. Verapamil protects against progression of experimental chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 31:41–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Herlitz H, Nyberg G, Granérus G, Bjorck S, Aurell M. 1988. Effects of felodipine in patients with refractory hypertension and progressive renal disease. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl 108:31–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Levenson JA, Simon AC, Safar ME. 1985. Vasodilatation of small and large arteries in hypertension. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 7(Suppl 2):S115–S120.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Henry PD. 1988. Calcium antagonists as antiatherogenic agents. Ann NY Acad Sci S22:411–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Lichtlen PR, Hugenholtz PG, Rafflenbeul W, Hecker H, Jost S, Deckers JW. 1990. Retardation of angiographic progression of coronary artery disease by nifedipine. Lancet 335:1109–1113.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Williams GH. 1988. Converting enzyme inhibitors in the treatment of hypertension. N Engl J Med 319:1517–1525.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Jackson B, Cubela RB, Conway EL, Johnston CI. 1988. Lisinopril pharmacokinetics in chronic renal failure. Br J Clin Pharm 25:719–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kuntziger HE, Pouthier D, Belluci A. 1987. Treatment of hypertension with lisinopril in end-stage renal failure. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 10(Suppl 7):S157–S159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sennesael J, Verbeelen D. 1986. Intra-individual comparison of captopril and enalapril in patients undergoing regular haemodialysis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 30:257–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Keane WF, Anderson S, Aurell M, de Zeeuw D, Narins R, Povar G. 1989. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and progressive renal insufficiency. Ann Intern Med 111: 503–516.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ruilope LM, Miranda B, Morales JM, Rodicio JL, Romero JC, Raij L. 1989. Converting enzyme inhibition in chronic renal failure. Am J Kidney Dis 13:120–126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Shionoiri H, Yasuda G, Takagi N, Oda H, Young SC, Miyajima E, Umemura S, Gotoh E, Sesoko S, Uneda S, Kaneko Y. 1987. Renal hemodynamics and comparative effects of captopril in patients with benign or malignant essential hypertension, or with chronic renal failure. Clin Exp Theory Pract A9:543–549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Donker AJM. 1987. Nephrotoxicity of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition. Kidney Int 31(Suppl 20):S132–S137.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Borek M, Charlap S, Frishman WH. 1989. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in heart failure. Med Clin N Am 73:315–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Materson BJ. 1987. Special uses of captopril. Am J Kidney Dis 10(Suppl 1):88–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Schohn DC, Jahn HA, Schmitt RL. 1988. Predictability of a standardized captopril-test in hypertension in end-stage renal failure. Kidney Int 34:S145–S148.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Lameire N, Gordts J. 1986. A pharmacokinetic study of prazosin in patients with varying degrees of chronic renal failure. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 31:333–337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Harter HR, Delmez JA. 1979. Effects of prazosin in the control of blood pressure in hypertensive dialysis patients. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Suppl 1:S43–S55.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Harter HR, Meltzer VN, Tindira CA, Naumovich AD, Goldberg AP. 1986. Comparison of the effects of prazosin versus propranolol on plasma lipoprotein lipids in patients receiving hemodialysis. Am J Med 80(Suppl 2A):82–89.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Dzau VJ, Sacks FM. 1987. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism by adrenergic mechanisms. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 10(Suppl 9):S2–S6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Hulter HN, Licht JH, Ilnicki LP, Singh S. 1979. Clinical efficacy and pharmacokinetics of clonidine in hemodialysis and renal insufficiency. J Lab Clin Med 94:223–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Nyhre E, Stenbaek O, Rugstad HE, Arnold E, Hansen T. 1982. Pharmacokinetics of methyldopa in renal failure and bilaterally nephrectomized patients. Scand J Urol Nephrol 16:257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kiechel JR. 1986. Pharmacokinetics of guanfacine in patients with impaired renal function and in some elderly patients. Am J Cardiol 57:18E.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Koch-Weser J. 1976. Hydralazine. N Engl J Med 295–320.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    O’Mally K, Velasco M, Pruitt A, McNay JL. 1975. Decreased plasma protein binding of diazoxide in uremia. Clin Pharmacol Ther 18:53–57.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louise F. Roy
  • Frans H. H. Leenen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations