Cardiac Disease in Chronic Uremia: An Overview

  • Philip J. Held
  • Nathan W. Levin
  • Friedrich K. Port
Part of the Topics in Renal Medicine book series (TIRM, volume 10)


Mortality among patients in the United States with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) approaches 20% to 21% per year [1]. However, this aggregrate statistic masks considerable differences in the mortality rate, which shows substantial variation by patient age, race, gender, primary diagnosis causing renal failure, modality of treatment, and cause of death. In this chapter, we focus on the largest single cause of death, cardiovascular disease, which accounted for 50% of all ESRD deaths in 1988 [1].


Peritoneal Dialysis Dialysis Patient ESRD Patient Cerebrovascular Accident Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Philip J. Held
  • Nathan W. Levin
  • Friedrich K. Port

There are no affiliations available

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