Vaccines pp 59-75 | Cite as

Nonionic Block Polymer Surfactants as Adjuvants in Vaccines

  • Guy J. W. J. Zigterman
  • Andre F. M. Verheul
  • Harm Snippe
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 215)

Abstract

Nonionic Block Polymers (NBPs) are simple copolymers of polyoxyethylene (POE) and hydrophobic polyoxypropylene (POP) and differ in molecular weight, percentage POE and the mode of linkage of POE abd POP-groups. These adjuvants are currently investigated on their potential use in vaccines. The mode of action of these adjuvants is largely unknown (Hunter et al, 1981, 1989; Byars and Allison, 1987). It is difficult to hypothesize that differences in biologic activities among NBPs could be due to the presence of active sites on one molecule that are not present on all of them. The experiments described in this review point out that NBPs are adjuvants which interfere with components of the immune system while interactions with the antigen are also noticed. The models put forward by Hunter and Allison on the mechanism by which pluronic polyols interfere with the immune system are presented. Finally, our efforts to develop a semi-synthetic pneumococcal vaccine are discussed and the effects of NBPs on the antibody avidity and isotype distribution are described.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allison, A.C. and Byars, N.E., 1986, An adjuvant formulation that selectively elicits the formation of antibodies of protective isotypes and of cell-mediated immunity, J.Immunol.Meth., 95:157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allison, A.C. and Byars, N.E., 1987, Vaccine technology: Adjuvants for increased efficacy, Biotechnol., 5:1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Behbehani, K., Beller, D.I. and Uhanue, E.R., 1985, The effects of beryllium and other adjuvants on la expression by macrophages, J.Immunol., 134:2047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Biozzi, G., Mouton, D., Stiffel, C. and Bouthillier, Y., 1985, A ma jor role of the macrophage in quantitative genetic regulation of immuno-responsiveness and anti-infectious immunity, Adv.Immunol., 36:189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Byars, N.E. and Allison, A.C., 1987, Adjuvant formulation for use in vaccines to elicit both cell-mediated and humoral immunity, Vaccine, 5:223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cahn, A. and Lynn, J.L., Jr., 1983, Surfactants and detersive systems, in: “Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology”, H.F. Mark, D.F. Othmer, CG. Overberger and G.T. Seaborg, eds., Vol. 22, John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  7. Dam, G.J. van, Verheul, A.F.M., Zigterman, G.J.W.J., De Reuver, M.J. and Snippe, H., 1989a, Nonionic block polymer surfactants enhance the avidity of antibodies in polyclonal antisera against Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 in normal and Xid mice, J.Immunol., 143:3049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Dam, G.J. van, Verheul, A.F.M., Zigterman, G.J.W.J., De Reuver, M.J. and Snippe, H., 1989b, Estimation of the avidity of antibodies in polyclonal antisera against Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 by inhibition ELISA, Molecular Immunol., 26:269TGoogle Scholar
  9. Dick, W.E. and Beurret, M., 1989, Glycoconjugates of bacterial carbohydrate antigens. A survey and consideration of design and preparation factors, in: “Contributions to Microbiology and Immunology”, J.M. Cruse and R.E. Lewis, eds., Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  10. Egwang, T.G. and Befus, A.D., 1984, The role of complement in the induction and regulation of immune responses, Immunol., 51:207.Google Scholar
  11. Geerligs, H.J., Weijer, W.J., Welling, G.W. and Welling-Wester, S., 1989, The influence of different adjuvants on the immune response to a synthetic pepotide comprising amino acid residues 9–21 of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D, J.Immunol.Methods, 124:95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Griffin, W.C., 1979, Emulsions, in: “Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology”, Vol. 8., H.F. Mark, D.F. Othmer, CG. Overberger and G.T. Seaborg, eds., John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  13. Hilgers, L.A.Th., Zigterman, G.J.W.J, and Snippe, H., 1989, Immunomodulating properties of amphiphilic agents, in: “Autoimmunity and Toxicology, Immunedisregulation Induced by Drugs and Chemicals”, M.E. Kammuller, N. Bloksma, and W. Seinen, eds., Elsevier Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  14. Howerton, D.A., Bjnter, R.L., Ziegler, H.K. and Check, I.J., 1990, Induction of macrophage Ia expression in vivo by a synthetic block copolymer, L 81, J.Immunol., 144:1578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Hunter, R.L. and Bennett, B., 1984, The adjuvant activity of nonionic block polymer. II. Antibody formation and inflammation related to the structure of triblock and octablock copolymers, J.Immunol., 133:3167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hunter, R.L. and Bennett, B., 1986, The adjuvant activity of nonionic block polymer surfactants. III. Characterization of selected biologically active surfaces, Scand.J.Immunol., 23:287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hunter, R.L. and Bennett, B., 1987, Modulation of antigen presentation and host mediators by block polymer adjuvants, in: “Progress in Leukocyte Biology”, Vol. 6, J.A. Majde, ed., Alan R. Liss, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Hunter, R.L., Strickland, F. and Kezdy, F., 1981, The adjuvant activity of nonionic block polymer surfactants. I. The role of hydrophile-lipophile balance, J.Immunol., 127:1244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hunter, R.L., Bennett, B., Howerton, D., Buynitzky, S. and Check, I.J., 1989, Nonionic block copolymer surfactants as immunological adjuvants: Mechanisms of action and novel formulations, in: “Immunological Adjuvants and Vaccines”, G. Gregoriadis, A.C. Allison and G. Poste, eds., Plenum Press, New York.Google Scholar
  20. Kenney, J.S., Hughes, B.W., Masada, M.P. and Allison, A.C., 1989, Influence of adjuvants on the quantity, affinity, isotype and epitope specificity of murine antibodies, J.Immunol.Methods, 121:157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kido, N., Nakashima, I. and Kato, N., 1984, Correlation between strong adjuvanticity of Klebsiella 03 lipopolysaccharide and its ability to induce interleukin-1 secretion, Cell.Immunol., 85:477.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Klerx, J.P.A.M., van Dijk, H., Kouwenberg, E.A., van der Maaden, W.J. and Willers, J.M.N., 1986, Effects of immunological adjuvants on the mouse complement system. II. Anti-complementary effects of surface-active compounds, Int.J.Immunopharmac., 8:47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Loos, M. and Bitter-Suermann, D., 1976, Mode of interaction of different polyanions with the first (C1) the second (C2) and the fourth (C4) component of complement. IV. Activation of C1 in serum by polyanions, Immunology, 31:931.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Nakashima, S. and Kamikawa, H., 1984, Accelerated expansion of antibody heterogeneity by complete Freund1 s adjuvant during the response to bacterial -amylase, Immunology, 53:837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Pepys, M.B., 1974, Role of complement in induction of antibody production in vivo. Effect of cobra factor and other C3-reactive agents on T-dependent and T-independent antibody responses, J.Exp.Med., 140:126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Snippe, H., De Reuver, M.J., Strickland, F., Willers, J.M.N, and Hinter, R.L., 1981, Adjuvant effect of nonionic block polymer surfactants in humoral and cellular immunity, Int.Archs.Allergy Appl.Immunol., 65:390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Svenson, S.B. and Lindberg, A.A., 1979, Coupling of acid labile Salmonella specific oligosaccharides to macromolecular carriers, J.Immunol.Methods, 25:323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Uhanaue, E.R. and Allen, P.M., 1987, The basis for the iranunoregulatory role of macrophages and other accessory cells, Science, 236:551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Verheul, A.F.M., Versteeg, A.A., De Reuver, M.J., Jansze, M. and Snippe, H., 1989, Modulation of the immune response to pneumococcal Type 14 capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugates by the adjuvant Quil A depends on the properties of the conjugates, Inf.Ininunity, 57:1078.Google Scholar
  30. Zigterman, G.J.W.J., 1988, Nonionic block polymer surfactants enhance vaccine efficacy, Thesis, State University Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guy J. W. J. Zigterman
    • 1
  • Andre F. M. Verheul
    • 2
  • Harm Snippe
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Bacteriology ResearchIntervet InternationalBoxmeerThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Eykman-Winkler Laboratory of Medical MicrobiologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations