Vacuum States in Spacetimes with Killing Horizons
Soon after the discovery by Hawking in 1974 that a black hole formed by gravitational collapse will radiate a thermal distribution of field quanta, a number of authors showed that, in particular spacetimes, when a quantum field is in a certain “natural vacuum state,” then appropriate observers “see” a thermal distribution of particles. For the ordinary vacuum state of Minkowski spacetime, Unruh (1976) obtained such a result for accelerating observers. In extended Schwarzschild spacetime, Hartle and Hawking (1976) and Israel (1976) defined a natural vacuum state (the “Hartle-Hawking vacuum”), which is a thermal state for a static observer. Similarly, for de Sitter spacetime, Gibbons and Hawking (1977) defined the “Euclidean vacuum state” and showed that it has thermal properties for any inertial (geodesic) observer.
KeywordsManifold Lution Dition Cond
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