Grafting a “Soft Front End” Onto a Hard Methodology — Some Questionable Assumptions

  • Brian Petheram


This paper is primarily concerned with the application of systems based methodologies to the development of organisational information systems that involve the use of computers. Checkland(1981) identified two different paradigms of systems thinking, hard systems and soft systems. This framework has been found useful in clarifying the aspects of problem solving addressed by different methodologies. Those which are based on hard systems thinking are mainly concerned with designing solutions to problems, the nature of which is taken for granted. Soft systems thinking regards the nature of a problem situation itself to be problematic and is focussed on learning rather than design.


Soft System Methodology Information System Development Questionable Assumption Organisational Reality Hard System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Brian Petheram
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Studies & MathematicsBristol PolytechnicBristolUK

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