Systems Evolution in Modern Systems Research and a Formal Model for Evolving Systems

  • S.-J. Gao
  • F. J. Charlwood

Abstract

Although the study of systems evolution originated in early 60’s as a discussion of self-organizing systems (von Foerster 1960; Ashby, 1962), it gained general awareness and became a defined research field in systems science only after the Brussel school’s work in non-equilibrium thermodynamics in the later 70’s and early 80’s (Nicolis et. al, 1977, Prigogine, 1980). Over the past 10 years, much work has been done and many papers published in the study of progressive change of systems, i.e. systems evolution, although much of the work may be under the heading of “self-organization” in systems which is regarded as a specific manifestation of evolutionary process. Among the more important work are Prigogine’s “Dissipative Structure Theory” (Nicolis et.al, 1977, 1989; Prigogine 1980; Prigogine et. al, 1984), Haken’s “Synergetics” (Haken, 1983a, 1983b, 1988), Eigen’s “Hypercycle” (Eigen et. al, 1977, 1978a, 1978b), the study of “Cellular Automata” (Wolfram, 1983, 1984), and above all, the synthesis of thermodynamics and Darwin’s theory of evolution (Weber et. al, 1988, Wicken, 1987). It is a real multi- and inter-disciplinary study and this is consistent with the spirit of systems research. It has been argued that systems evolution has become a new chapter of general systems theory (Jdanko, 1987).

Keywords

Entropy Manifold Wolfram 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abraham, R.H. (1988) Dynamics and Self-organization. In F.E. Yates (eds) Self-organizing Systems: the Emergence of Order. Plenum Press: New York. pp599–614.Google Scholar
  2. Ashby, R. (1962) Principles of the Self-organizing Systems. In H. von Foerster and Zopf, G.W. (eds.) Principles of Self-organization. Pergamon: New York.pp155–178.Google Scholar
  3. Eigen, M. and Schuster, P. (1977) The Hypercycle, Part A: the Emergence of the Hypercycle. Naturf. 64:pp541–565.Google Scholar
  4. — (1978a) The Hypercycle, Part B: the Abatract Hypercycle. Naturf. 65:pp7–41.Google Scholar
  5. — (1978b) The Hypercycle, Part C: the Realistic Hypercycle. Naturf. 65: pp341–369.Google Scholar
  6. Feigenbaum, M.J. (1978). Quantitative Universality for a Class of Nonlinear Transformations, J.Stat.Phys. 19. pp25–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Guckenheimer, J.A. and Holmes, P. (1983) Nonlinear Oscillations, Dynamical Systems, and Bifurcations of Vector Fields. Springer-Verlag: New York.Google Scholar
  8. Haken, H. (1983a) Synergetics. Third edition. Springer-Verlag: New York etc..CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. — (1983b) Advanced Synergetics. Springer-Verlag: Berlin etc..Google Scholar
  10. — (1988) Information and Self-organization. Springer-Verlag: New York etc..Google Scholar
  11. Hassard, B.D., Kazarnoll, N.D. and Wan, Y.-H. (1981) Theory and Application of Hopf Bifurcations. Cambridge University Press: CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  12. Hirsch, M. (1985) The Dynamical Approach to Differential Equations. Bull.Amer.Sco. Math., Vol.11 pp1–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jdanko, A.V. (1988) Evolutionary Cybernetic Systems Theory Considered as a Chapter of General Systems Theory— a Viewpoint. Kybernetes Vol.17, No.5, pp44–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nicolis, G. and Prigogine, I. (1977) Self-organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems. Wiley: New York.Google Scholar
  15. — (1989) Exploring Complexity. Wiley: New York.Google Scholar
  16. Poston, P. and Stewart, I. (1978) Catastrophe Theory and Its Application. Pitman, London.Google Scholar
  17. Prigogine, I. (1980) From Being to Becoming. Wiley: New York.Google Scholar
  18. Prigogine, I. and Stenger, I. (1984) Order out Chaos. Bantam Books Inc.Google Scholar
  19. Ruelle, D. (1989) Chaotic Evolution and Strange attractors. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Stewart, H.B. and Thompson, J.W.T.(1986). Towards a Classification of Generic Bifurcations in Dissipative Dynamical Systems. Dynamics and Stability of Systems. Vol.1.No.1. pp 87–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Swenson, R. (1989) Emergent Attractors and the Law of Maximum Entropy Production: Foundations to a Theory of General Evolution. Systems Research, Vol.6, No.3:pp187–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Thorn, R. (1975) Structual Stability and Morphogenesis. W.A.Benjamin: Reading, MA.Google Scholar
  23. von Foerster, H. (1960) On Self-organizing Systems and their Environments. In M.C. Yovitz et al. (eds). Self-organizing Systems. Pergamon: New York.Google Scholar
  24. Weber, B. and Depew, D.J. (eds) (1988) Entropy, Information and Evolution. MIT Press: Cambridge.Google Scholar
  25. Wicken, J. (1987) Evolution, Information, and Thermodynamics: Extending the Darwinian Program. Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  26. Wolfram, S. (1983) Statistical Mechanics of Cellular Automata. Rev.Mod.Phys. 55:pp601–642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. —, (1984) Universality and Complexity in Cellular Automata. Physica. 10D. pp1–35.Google Scholar
  28. Zeeman, E.C. (1986) Dynamics of Evolution. In S. Diner, Fargue, D. and Lochak, G. (eds.): Dynamical Systems: a renewal of Mechanism. World Scientific: Singapore.pp155–165.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • S.-J. Gao
    • 1
  • F. J. Charlwood
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Systems ScienceCity UniversityLondonEngland

Personalised recommendations