Halophily, Taxonomy, Phylogeny and Nomenclature
On a first view there is apparently little correlation between taxonomy and halophily. The distribution of different compatible solutes in the eubacterial phyla Proteobacteria and Firmacutes follows a pattern, however, that at least follows certain regularities: (1) All eubacteria that gain energy from photosynthesis or respiration and are capable of haloadaptation are able to accumulate and/or synthesize compatible solutes. (2) When a eubacterium can grow in a non-complex medium, it usually can synthesize ectoine. Growth on yeast extract does not necessarily exclude ectoine synthesis. (3) Extreme halophily in eubacteria is always accompanied by glycine betaine synthesis. The complete synthesis of glycine betaine from CO2 or simple carbon compounds has only been proven for cyanobacteria, Ectothiorhodospiraceae and Actinopolyspora halophila. (4) A not yet identified compound “Y” occurs preferably in Firmacutes; Bacillus species accumulate and synthesize proline and glutamate as compatible solutes.
KeywordsCompatible Solute Glycine Betaine Ectoine Biosynthesis Organic Compatible Solute Glycine Betaine Synthesis
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