Control of Hepatocyte Growth by Positive and Negative Growth Regulators and Mitogenic Triggers: Implications for Hepatic Neoplasia
Liver carcinogenesis has been used a model system to analyze the biology of neoplasia for several reasons. Liver tumors occur commonly with a variety of carcinogenic regimens. They constituite the most frequently occurring tumors in whole animal carcinogenesis bioassay. Liver tissue and its biochemistry have been extensively analyzed and a large data bank exists as a background for further studies. Several initiation — promotion protocols for liver carcinogenesis have been well characterized. Converging evidence from studies of cell lineage has identified potential origin of hepatocellular carcinomas from either parenchymal hepatocytes progressing through intermediate stages of defined morphology or through facultative stem cells of the river that acquire a hepatoma phenotype during the evolution of the neoplastic process. Most importantly, however, liver allows easy comparison of neoplastic growth to regenerative growth. Liver regeneration after 2/3 partial hepatectomy (2/3 P.H.) is perhaps the best studied model for tissue regeneration. In recent years there have been major insights in the biochemical changes and changes in gene expression which occur during liver regeneration. Significant advances have also been made in defining the growth regulatory signals associated with this phenomenon. It has been clearly shown that during regeneration there is enhanced expression of cellular proto-oncogeesl as well as increase in production of TGFα 2 and HBGF-13 by hepatocytes.
KeywordsTyrosine Adenoma Heparin Serine Polypeptide
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