Hidden Markov Modeling of Speech
Hidden Markov models (HMM) were first described in the classic paper by Baum [Baum 72]. Shortly afterwards, they were extended to automatic speech recognition independently at CMU [Baker 75a] and IBM [Bakis 76, Jelinek 76]. It was only in the past few years, however, that HMMs became the predominant approach to speech recognition, superseding dynamic time warping.
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