Introduction and Definitions

  • Dibakar Bhattacharyya
  • Michael E. Williams

Abstract

Reverse osmosis (RO) technology has grown extensively in recent years; many new types of membranes are now available, leading to an increase in various applications. Improvements have been made in membrane materials making them more pH, temperature, and chlorine resistant than the traditional cellulose acetate membranes. The ability of membranes to separate simultaneously, or selectively, organic and inorganic solutes from aqueous systems without phase change offers substantial energy savings and flexibility in the design of separation processes. The industrial development of noncellulosic, thin-film composite (TFC) membranes has provided better flux performance and enhanced separations of organics under lower operating pressures than those obtained with cellulosic membranes.

Keywords

Permeability Cellulose Chlorine Resis Librium 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Belfort, G. 1984. Synthetic Membrane Processes: Fundamentals and Water Applications. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  2. Cecille, L., and J. Toussaint. 1989. Future Industrial Prospects of Membrane Processes. New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  3. Drioli, E., and M. Nakagaki. 1986. Membrane and Membrane Processes. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  4. Gekas, V. 1988. Terminology for pressure-driven membrane operations. Desalination 68:77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Kedem, O. 1972. Water and salt transport in hyperfiltration. Chap. 1 in Reverse Osmosis Membrane Research ed. H. Lonsdale and H. Podall. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  6. Kesting, R. 1985. Synthetic Polymeric Membranes:A Structural Perspective. New York: WileyInterscience.Google Scholar
  7. Koros, W., G. Fleming, S. Jordan, T. Kim, and H. Hoehn. 1988. Polymeric membrane materials for solution-diffusion based permeation separations. Prog. Polym. Sci. 13:339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lee, E. 1987. Membranes, synthetic, applications. Encycl. Phys. Sci. Technol. 8:20.Google Scholar
  9. Lloyd, D. 1985. Material science of synthetic membranes. ACS Symp. Series No. 269. Washington, DC: American Chemical Society.Google Scholar
  10. Parekh, B. 1988. Reverse Osmosis Technology. New York: Marcel Dekker.Google Scholar
  11. Pusch, W. 1986. Measurement techniques of transport through membranes. Desalination. 59:105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Rautenbach, R., and R. Albrecht. 1989. Membrane Processes. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  13. Riley, R. 1990. Reverse osmosis. In Membrane Separation Systems. Report DOE/ER/30133-H1, P51, U.S. Department of Energy.Google Scholar
  14. Sirkar, K., and D. Lloyd. 1988. New membrane materials and processes for separation. AIChE Symp. Series No. 261. New York: American Institute of Chemical Engineers.Google Scholar
  15. Sourirajan, S., and T. Matsuura. 1985. Reverse Osmosis/ Ultrafiltration Principles. Ottawa, Canada: National Research Council of Canada.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dibakar Bhattacharyya
    • 1
  • Michael E. Williams
    • 1
  1. 1.University of KentuckyUSA

Personalised recommendations