Interdependence of Hormones and Growth Factors in Lobulo-Alveolar Development of the Mammary Gland and in Tumorigenesis

  • Barbara K. Vonderhaar
  • Karen Plaut
Part of the Developments in Oncology book series (DION, volume 69)


In normal breast development, two major pathways for cell growth regulation act in parallel. One is the positive pathway, generally believed to involve growth factors such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-a), insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II), fibroblast growth factors (FGF) [1], and possibly platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) [2]. The other is the negative pathway involving agents such as members of the transforming growth factor beta family (TGF-b1, -b2, and -b3) [3], a putative c-erbB2 ligand [4], mammostatin [5], and products of the retinoblastoma (Rb) [6] and p53 antioncogenes [7]. Both of these pathways are influenced both positively and negatively by the classical hormones such as estrogen (E), progesterone (P), and prolactin (Prl). These same hormones and growth factors are also intertwined in their action in the development and promotion of breast cancer (Fig 1). Increased response to, or overexpression of, positive factors and/or loss of response to, or decreased expression of, negative factors contribute to tumor development.


Epidermal Growth Factor Mammary Gland Mammary Epithelial Cell Mammary Development Mouse Mammary Gland 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara K. Vonderhaar
    • 1
  • Karen Plaut
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Biology National CancerInstitute National Institutes of Health BethesdaUSA

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