Preparation and Performance of Tannin-Based Flocculants

  • Erkki Pulkkinen
  • Hannu Mikkonen
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 59)

Abstract

The hydroxyl groups of conifer tree tannins can be readily converted to quaternary ammonium ether derivatives having a N-content as high as 4 percent and reagent incorporation of about 90 percent. While such a cationic tannin is an effective flocculant, its performance can still be improved by crosslinking reactions of the A-ring with formaldehyde or epichlorohydrin. The flocculation ability of cationic tannins can readily be evaluated in the laboratory by a conventional jar test or by a photometric dispersion analyzer, which records the relative floc sizes. Many times the best flocculation behavior of the cationic tannin in a real wastewater treatment situation is achieved by a combination dosage, which contains cationic tannin as an inexpensive charge neutralizer of the colloidal particles and a more costly macromolecular linear polymer as a bridging agent.

Keywords

Cellulose Formaldehyde Sludge Lignin Turbidity 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erkki Pulkkinen
    • 1
  • Hannu Mikkonen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of OuluOuluFinland

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