Preparation and Performance of Tannin-Based Flocculants

  • Erkki Pulkkinen
  • Hannu Mikkonen
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 59)


The hydroxyl groups of conifer tree tannins can be readily converted to quaternary ammonium ether derivatives having a N-content as high as 4 percent and reagent incorporation of about 90 percent. While such a cationic tannin is an effective flocculant, its performance can still be improved by crosslinking reactions of the A-ring with formaldehyde or epichlorohydrin. The flocculation ability of cationic tannins can readily be evaluated in the laboratory by a conventional jar test or by a photometric dispersion analyzer, which records the relative floc sizes. Many times the best flocculation behavior of the cationic tannin in a real wastewater treatment situation is achieved by a combination dosage, which contains cationic tannin as an inexpensive charge neutralizer of the colloidal particles and a more costly macromolecular linear polymer as a bridging agent.


Cellulose Formaldehyde Sludge Lignin Turbidity 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erkki Pulkkinen
    • 1
  • Hannu Mikkonen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of OuluOuluFinland

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