Preparation and Performance of Tannin-Based Flocculants

  • Erkki Pulkkinen
  • Hannu Mikkonen
Part of the Basic Life Sciences book series (BLSC, volume 59)


The hydroxyl groups of conifer tree tannins can be readily converted to quaternary ammonium ether derivatives having a N-content as high as 4 percent and reagent incorporation of about 90 percent. While such a cationic tannin is an effective flocculant, its performance can still be improved by crosslinking reactions of the A-ring with formaldehyde or epichlorohydrin. The flocculation ability of cationic tannins can readily be evaluated in the laboratory by a conventional jar test or by a photometric dispersion analyzer, which records the relative floc sizes. Many times the best flocculation behavior of the cationic tannin in a real wastewater treatment situation is achieved by a combination dosage, which contains cationic tannin as an inexpensive charge neutralizer of the colloidal particles and a more costly macromolecular linear polymer as a bridging agent.


Bark Extract Combination Dosage Kraft Lignin Epoxy Content Residual Turbidity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Tisler, V.; Galla, E.; Pulkkkinen, E. Fractionation of hot water extract from Picea abits Karst, bark. Holz als Roh. und Werkstoff 44:427 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dix, B; Marutzky, R. Mechanisch-technologische eigenschaften von Spanplatten mit MDI-und PF-modifiziertem tanninharz als bindemittel. Holz als Roh-und Werkstoff 43:198 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dix, B.; Marutzky, R. Modification of diisocyanide based particleboard and plywood glues with natural polymers: polyphenols, carbohydrates and proteins. In: Hemingway, R.W.; Conner, A.H.; Branham, S.J. (eds.) Adhesives from renewable resourses. American Chemical Society, Symposium Series No 385. Washington, DC, pp. 229-241 (1980).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pulkkinen, E.; Seppänen, R. Preparation and testing of cationic flocculants from aqueous extracts of conifer free barks. Forest Products Research Society. 40th Annual Meeting, June 22–26, Spokane, Washington. Abstract 8 (1986).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Seppänen, R.; Mäkelä, A.; Pulkkinen, E. Use of cationic derivatives of tree bark extracts and lignin as flocculant for wastewater treatment. Finnish Chemical Society, Kemia Päivät 5.-6.11. 1986, Symposium on environmental chemistry, astract 6.26. Kemia-Kemi:11 (1986).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pulkkinen, E.; Mäkelä, A.; Mikkonen, H. Preparation and testing of cationic flocculants from Kraft lignin. In: Glasser, W.G.; Sarkanen, S. (eds.) Lignin, Properties and Materials. American Chemical Society, Symposium Series 397, Washington, DC, pp. 284-293 (1989).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Photometric dispersion analyzer PDA 2000. An information brochure. Rank Brothers, LTD. Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    McGraw, G.W. Reactions at the A-ring of proanthocyanidines. In: Hemingway, R.W.; Karchesy, J.J.; Branham, S.J. (eds.) Chemistry and significance of condensed tannins. Plenum Press, New York, pp. 227–248 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yazaki, Y.; Hillis, W.E., Molecular size distribution of radiat a pine bark extracts and its effects on properties. Holzforschung 34:125–130 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erkki Pulkkinen
    • 1
  • Hannu Mikkonen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of OuluOuluFinland

Personalised recommendations