Virus Receptors: The Achilles’ Heel of Human Rhinoviruses
Human Rhinoviruses (HRVs), members of the Picornaviridae, are the major causative agents of the common cold in humans (Gwaltney, Jr., 1982). There are currently 102 recognized serotypes that have been isolated and shown to be antigenically distinct (Hamparian et al., 1987). Similar to other picornaviruses, HRVs are non-enveloped viruses that contain four structural proteins, designated VP1, VP2, VP3, and VP4, which form a protein capsid with icosahedral symmetry. Within the viral capsid lies a single-stranded genome RNA which serves as a monocistronic mRNA for the synthesis of all 11 structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. Upon entry into a cell, the RNA genome is translated into a large polyprotein which is subsequently cleaved by two viral proteases encoded within the polyprotein (Palmenberg, 1987). The genome RNA alone is sufficient to initiate a viral infection since transfection of cells with HRV genome RNA results in the production of infectious progeny virus (Mizutani and Colonno, 1985).
KeywordsHuman Immunodeficiency Virus Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule Cellular Receptor Virus Binding Human Rhinovirus
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