Excitatory Amino Acid Release After Focal Cerebral Ischaemia: Infarct Volume Determines EAA Release

  • Ross Bullock
  • Steven Butcher
  • David Graham
  • Graham Teasdale

Abstract

The release of neuro-excitatory amino acids during cerebra 1 ischaemia is a “corner-stone” of the excitotoxic hypothesis.6 Recently, microdialysis has demonstrated release of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, (EAAs) particularly glutamate and aspartate after focal and global ischaemic events and traumatic brain injury, in various animal models.1,2,5 The factors which affect the ECF concentration of EAAs, and inhibitory neurotransmitters during ischaemia are, however, poorly understood. Shimada et al. have shown that glutamate release in a cat global ischaemia model is a threshold phenomenon; glutamate increases rapidly below a blood flow level of 20 mls/100g/min.8

Keywords

High Performance Liquid Chromatography Bicarbonate Glutamine Alanine Cytosol 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    R. Bulloek, S.P. Buteher, M-H. Chen, L. Kendall, J. McCulloch. Correlation of the extracellular glutamate concentration with extent of blood flow reduction after subdural haematoma in the rat. J. Neurosurg. 74:794–802, (1991)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S.P. Butcher, R. Bullock, D.I. Graham, J. McCulloch. Correlation between amino acid release and neuropathologieal outcome in rat striatum and cortex following middle cerebral artery occlusion. Stroke. 21:I. 1727–1733, (1990)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J.O. Miller, R. Bullock, D.I. Graham, et al. Ischaemic brain damage in a model of acute subdural haematoma. Neurosurgery. 27: 433–439, (1990)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    K.A. Osborne, T. Shigeno, A.M. Balowski, et al. Quantitative assessment of early brain damage in a rat model of focal cerebral isehaemia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry. 50: 402–410, 1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Persson, L. Hillered, U. Ponten U, et al. Intracerebral microdialysis for continuous monitoring of neurosurgical patients: preliminary methodological considerations. J. CBF. Metabol. 9 (Suppl. 1 ) S584, (1989)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Rothman. Synaptic release of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters mediates anoxic neuronal death. J. Neuro. Sci. 4: 1884–1891, (1984)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O. Sakurada, C. Kennedy, J.W. Jehle, et al. Measurements of local cerebral blood flow with IODO 14C antipyrene. Am. J.Physiol. 234: H59–H66, (1978)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    N. Shimada, R. Graf, G. Rosner, et al. Ischaemic flow threshold for extracellular glutamate increase in cat cortex. J CBF Metabol. 9: 603–606, (1989)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    A. Tamura, D.I. Graham, J. McCulloch, G.M. Teasdale. Focal cerebral ischaemia in the rat: 1. Oescription of technique and early neuropathological consequences following middle cerebral artery occlusion. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 1: 53–60, (1981)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ross Bullock
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Steven Butcher
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • David Graham
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Graham Teasdale
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.University Departments of Neurosurgery and NeuropathologyUniversity of EdinburghUK
  2. 2.Institute of Neurological Sciences GlasgowUniversity of EdinburghUK
  3. 3.Department of PharmacologyUniversity of EdinburghUK

Personalised recommendations