Identification and Characterization of Mammalian Cell Membrane Receptors for LPS-Endotoxin
Central to the concept of host defense against potentially lethal invasion by infectious microbes is the capacity of the host to distinguish self from non-self. To this end, the mammalian host has evolved multiple recognition systems by which non-self may be readily distinguished from self. Such discrimination systems exist at many levels, from the relatively simple, yet elegant, mechanisms for polysaccharide-dependent recognition of non-self by factors B, D and C3b of the alternative complement pathway, to the sophisticated major histocompatibility complex-mediated presentation of non-self peptides to membrane-localized T-lymphocyte multicomplement receptors. In other, considerably less complex, recognition systems, antigen binding to surface-localized immunoglobulins on B lymphocytes serves as a relative direct mechanism for host recognition of non-self. In both T and B-lymphocyte-mediated recognition of non-self, however, the receptor repertoire is extensive, with an acknowledged diversity approaching one billion specificities. The existence of such diverse, immunologically-specific, host recognition systems is central to survival of multicellular eukaryotic systems in an environment of abundant prokaryotic life forms.
KeywordsAlternative Complement Pathway Receptor Repertoire Murine Splenocytes Human Peripheral Blood Cell Tanoic Acid
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