Impact of Dietary Fatty Acid Balance on Membrane Structure and Function of Neural Tissues
Neural tissue has generally been viewed as resistant to structural changes induced by exogenous factors. Research has shown that the brain responds to changes in diet by altering neurotransmitter synthesis, and by shifting neuroendocrine controls over a variety of physiological events. Animal model research also indicates that fatty acid constituents and synthesis of brain structural lipid in membranes undergoing turnover can be altered by changing the composition of dietary fat. In growing animals, the balance between dietary ω6 and ω3 fatty acids influences brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity, and rate of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis via the CDP-choline pathway. It is concluded that biosynthetic control mechanisms regulating synthesis of brain structural lipid, in particular phosphatidylcholine, respond to exogenous factors and represent a normal physiological response by the brain. This response may provide a mechanism for therapeutic treatment of disorders involving degeneration of brain structural lipid.
KeywordsMicrosomal Membrane Ethanolamine Phosphatidyl Synaptic Plasma Membrane Phospholipid Fatty Acid Composition Phospholipid Species
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