Advertisement

Influence of Free Radical Scavengers on Myeloperoxidase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Acute Skin Grafts

  • Ralf K. Goldstein
  • Albert Augustin
  • Johannes Milz
  • Guenther Burg
  • Joachim Lutz
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 316)

Abstract

Oxygen free radicals are known to be partly responsible for tissue necrosis in free skin grafts. This was shown by the positive effect of radical scavenging agents, such as allopurinol (Im et al., 1984) and superoxide dismutase (Manson et al., 1984; Sagi et al., 1986) on the survival rate of island skin flaps. The reported results, however, are difficult to interpret. Anoxia (Tan et al., 1984), inflammatory reactions (Sasaki and Pang, 1981), such as the respiratory burst (Fantone and Ward, 1982), and enzyme leakage from cells (Blake et al., 1987) may contribute to a variable extent to tissue damage after transplantation. Allopurinol may act as a direct superoxide and hydroxyl- scavenger rather than as a xanthin oxidase inhibitor (Moorhouse et al., 1987). Superoxide dismutase reduces the amount of superoxide anions, but even more reactive species, like the hydroxyl radical and hypochlorite acid, can be formed from the resulting hydrogen peroxide. In addition, the commonly used pedicle flap has to be subdivided at least into a lip area and a central zone, which includes the pedicle, due to different oxygen availability. We used a free flap model, which shows no different areas. To rule out anoxia and enzyme leakage as contributing factors, we focused on lipid peroxidation measured by the biochemical method described below rather than by rate of tissue necrosis.

Keywords

Lipid Peroxide Skin Graft Skin Flap Myeloperoxidase Activity Xanthin Oxidase Inhibitor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Badwey, J. A., Curnutte, J. T., and Karnovsky, M. L., 1979, The enzyme of granulocytes that produces superoxide and peroxide, N Engl J Med, 300:1157.Google Scholar
  2. Blake, D. R., Allen, R. E., and Lunec J., 1987, Free radicals in biological systems-a review orientated to inflammatory processes, Brit Med Bull, 43:371.Google Scholar
  3. Bradley P. P., Priebat, D. A., Christensen, R. D., and Rothstein, G., 1982, Measurement of cutaneous inflammation: estimation of neutrophil content with an enzyme marker, J Invest Dermatol, 78:206.Google Scholar
  4. Fantone, J. C., and Ward, P. A., 1982, Role of oxygen-derived free radicals and metabolites in leukocyte-dependent inflammatory reactions, A J P, 107:397.Google Scholar
  5. Freeman, B. A., and Crapo, J. D., 1982. Biology of Disease. Free radicals and tissue injury, Lab Invest, 47:412.Google Scholar
  6. Im, M. J., Hoopes, J. E., Yoshimura, Y., Manson, P. N., and Bulkley, G. B., 1989, Xanthine:Acceptor oxidoreductase activities in ischemic rat skin flaps, J Surg Res, 46:230.Google Scholar
  7. Im, M. J., Shen W.-H., Pak, C. J., Manson, P. N., Bulkley, G. B., and Hoopes, J. E., 1984, Effect of allopurinol on the survival of hyperemic island skin flaps, Plast Reconstr Surg, 73:276.Google Scholar
  8. Krawisz, J. E., Sharon, P., and Stenson, W.F., 1984, Quantitative assay for acute intestinal inflammation based on myeloperoxidase activity, Gastroenterology, 87:1344.Google Scholar
  9. Laiho K., 1988, Peroxidase activity in traumatic skin lesions, Z Rechtsmed, 100:65.Google Scholar
  10. Lundberg, C., and Arfors, K. E., 1983, Polymorphonuclear leucocyte accumulation in inflammatory dermal sites as measured by 51Cr-labeled cells and myeloperoxidase, Inflammation, 7:247.Google Scholar
  11. Lundberg, C., Lebel, L., and Gerdin B., 1984, Inflammatory reaction in an experimental model of open wounds in the rat, Lab Invest, 50:726.Google Scholar
  12. Lutz, J., Augustin, A., Friedrich, E., 1990, Severity of oxygen free radical effects after ischemia and reperfusion injury in intestinal tissue and the influence of different drugs, in: Oxygen transport to tissue XII, Piiper J. et al. ed., Plenum Pub., New York.Google Scholar
  13. Manson, P. N., Anthenelli, R. M., Im, M. J., Bulkley, G. B., Hoopes, J. E., 1984, The role of oxygen-free radicals in ischemic tissue injury in island skin flaps, Ann Surg, 198:87.Google Scholar
  14. Moorhouse, P. C., Grootveld, M., Halliwell, B., Quinlan, J. G., and Gutteridge, J. M., C., 1987, Allopurinol and oxypurinol are hydroxyl radical scavengers, FEBS lett, 213:23.Google Scholar
  15. Nakamura, M., Murakami, M., Koga, T., and Minakami, S., 1987, Oxygen activation by phagocyte-specific NADPH oxidase, in: The biological role of reactive oxygen species in skin, Hayaishi, O., Imamura, S., Miyachi, Y., ed., Elsevier, New York, Amsterdam, London.Google Scholar
  16. Oyanagui, Y., 1987, Active oxygens and glucocorticoids in animal inflammation models, in: The biological role of reactive oxygen species in skin, Hayaishi, O., Imamura, S., Miyachi, Y., ed., Elsevier, New York, Amsterdam, London.Google Scholar
  17. Sagi A., Ferder, M., Levens, D., and Strauch, B., 1986, Improved survival of island skin flaps after prolonged ischemia by perfusion with superoxide dismutase, Plast Reconstr Surg, 77:639.Google Scholar
  18. Sasaki, G. H., and Pang, C. Y., 1981, Experimental evidence for involvement of prostaglandins in viability of acute skin flaps: effects on viability and mode of action, Plast Reconstr Surg, 67:335.Google Scholar
  19. Schulman, J. D., Mudd, S. H., Schneider, J. A., Spielberg, S. P., Boxer, L., and Oliver, J., 1980, Genetic disorders of glutathione and sulfur amino-acid metabolism, Ann Int Med, 93:330.Google Scholar
  20. Stendahl, O., Molin, L., and Lindroth, M., 1983, Granulocyte-mediated release of histamine from mast cells, Int Archs Allergy appl Immun, 70:277.Google Scholar
  21. Tan, C. M., Im, M. J., Meyers, R. A. M., and Hoopes, J. E., 1984, Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and hyperbaric air on the survival of island skin flaps, Plast Reconstr Surg, 70:27.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralf K. Goldstein
    • 1
  • Albert Augustin
    • 2
  • Johannes Milz
    • 2
  • Guenther Burg
    • 1
  • Joachim Lutz
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of DermatologyUniversity of WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of PhysiologyUniversity of WuerzburgWuerzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations