Advertisement

Construction, Calibration and Evaluation of pO2 Electrodes for Chronical Implantation in the Rabbit Brain Cortex

  • Koen van Rossem
  • Herman Vermariën
  • René Bourgain
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 316)

Abstract

Aiming at continuous polarographic measurement of the mean pO2 in the rabbit brain cortex before, during and after photochemically induced infarction, we designed and constructed monopolar platinum oxygen electrodes of the open type for chronical implantation. The measuring tip (length 1 mm, diameter 0.1 mm) is covered with a homogenous membrane of cellulose acetate. The electrode currents are measured by a four-channel amplifier of proper design; the device permits accurate and stable polarisation, identical for each channel. Moreover, a calibration device has been constructed. It consists of a Buchner funnel filled with Ringer solution and mounted in a temperature-controlled bath. In order to create a specific partial pressure of oxygen in the calibration chamber, predetermined gasmixtures are bubbled through the solution using computer controlled mass flow regulators. The calibration device thus pennits the determination of primary and secondary electrode parameters, i.e. linearity, oxygen sensitivity and residual current, and polarisation dependency, temperature dependency, sensitivity to CO2, electrode stability, dynamic behaviour and oxygen consumption.

Three groups, each of them containing ten electrodes, have been tested with regard to electrode parameters : the first group contains bare electrodes, the second and the third group contain membrane covered electrodes, with a membrane thickness of 10 and 20 µm respectively. In order to evaluate acute and long-term effects of implantation on the brain cortical tissue and on the sensors’ measuring qualities, electrodes have been implanted for different time periods (51 days, 30 days, 9 days, 5 min). pO2 was recorded regularly and polarograms have been registered. The effects on cortical tissue have been studied with the aid of light microscopy.

Keywords

Ringer Solution Membrane Thickness Stabilisation Time Residual Current Frit Glass 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Baumgärtl, H., and Lübbers, D. W., 1983, Microaxial needle sensor for polarographic measurement of local O2 pressure in the cellular range of living tissue. Its construction and properties, in: “Polarographic Oxygen Sensors”, Gnaiger and Forstner, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 37–65.Google Scholar
  2. Beran, A. V., Shigezawa, G. Y., Whiteside, D. A., Yeung, H. N., and Huxtable, R. F., 1978, In vitro evaluations of monopolar intravascular oxygen sensors, J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol., 44(6): 969–973.Google Scholar
  3. Clark, L. C., 1956, Monitor and control of blood and tissue oxygen tensions, Trans. Am. Soc. Artif. Intern. Organs, 2: 41–48.Google Scholar
  4. Fennema, M., Wessel, J. N., Faithfull, N. S., and Erdmann, W., 1989, Tissue oxygen tension in the cerebral cortex of the rabbit, in: “Oxygen transport to tissue XI”, K. Rakusan, G. P. Biro, T. K. Goldstick and Z. Turek, eds., Plenum Press, New York and London, 451–460.Google Scholar
  5. Hahn, A. W., Nichols, M. F., Sharma, A. K., and Hellmuth, E. W., 1981, Glow discharge polymer coated oxygen sensors, Polymer Science and Technology, 14: 85–96.Google Scholar
  6. Hale, J. M., 1983, Factors influencing the stability of polarographic oxygen sensors, in: “Polarographic Oxygen Sensors”, Gnaiger and Forstner, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 3–17.Google Scholar
  7. Hitchman, M. L., 1983, Calibration and accuracy of polarographic oxygen sensors, in: “Polarographic Oxygen Sensors”, Gnaiger and Forstner, eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 18–30.Google Scholar
  8. Proctor, K. G., and Bohlen, H. G., 1979, Tonometer for calibration and evaluation of oxygen microelectrodes, J. Appl. Physiol.: Respirat. Envir. Exercise Physiol., 46(5): 1016–1018.Google Scholar
  9. Schmidt, E. M., McIntosh, J. S., and Bak, M. J., 1988, Long-term implants of paralyne-C coated microelectrodes, Med. & Biol. Eng. & Comput., 26: 96–101.Google Scholar
  10. Shek, J. W., Wen, G. Y., and Wisniewski, H. M., 1986, Atlas of the rabbit brain and spinal cord, Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  11. Siesjö, B. K., 1978, Brain energy metabolism, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester.Google Scholar
  12. Silver, I. A., 1966, The measurement of oxygen tension in tissue, in: “Oxygen measurements in blood and tissues and their significance”, J. P. Payne and D. W. Hill, eds., Churchill, London, 135–145.Google Scholar
  13. Tomida, S., Wagner, H. G., Klatzo, I., and Nowak, T. S. Jr., 1989, Effect of acute electrode placement on regional CBF in the gerbil: a comparison of blood flow measured by hydrogen clearance, [3H]nicotine, and [14C]iodoantipyrlne techniques, J. of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism, 9: 79–86.Google Scholar
  14. van Rossem, K., Vermariën, R., Jacqueloot, J., and Bourgain, R., 1989, Continuous sensing of oxygen tension in rabbit brain cortical tissue during and after photochemically induced infarction, Proceedings V Mediterranean Conf Med. Biol. Eng., Patras, 190–191.Google Scholar
  15. Watson, B. D., Dietrich, W. D., Busto, R., Wachtel, M. S., and Ginsberg, M. D., 1985, Induction of reproducible brain infarction by photochemically initiated thrombosis, Ann. Neurol., 17: 497–504.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Koen van Rossem
    • 1
  • Herman Vermariën
    • 1
  • René Bourgain
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Physiology and PhysiopathologyUniversity of Brussels VUBBrusselsBelgium

Personalised recommendations