A Neural Network Model for Stripe Formation in Primate Visual Cortex

  • Wm. Cowan
  • M. J. Zuckermann
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 222)

Abstract

Spontaneous stripe formation occurs in many physical and biological systems1, for example, the formation of a striped pattern of ocular dominance columns on layer 4, area 17, of the visual cortex, observed in sections parallel to the surface of the cortex. The ocular dominance of a cortical neuron measures the difference in excitation of the neuron when each eye is stimulated separately. In primates it begins to develop shortly before birth. When both eyes experience a normal visual environment or are deprived of pattern vision (binocular deprivation) ocular dominance forms in parallel stripes2. This development is disturbed, however, when a single eye is deprived of pattern vision (monocular deprivation) in which case the stripes are spaced less regularly. They also thin, or ‘corrode’ into patterns with broken stripes3. These ocular dominance patterns are symptoms of changes in the strength of synaptic connections between cortical neurons and the neurons in the lateral geniculate from which they receive their input. A summary of the theory of synaptic development and an overview of experiments performed on animals with normal visual experience can be found in our previous work4,5.

Keywords

Anisotropy Retina Convolution Dinates Stim 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    J. D. Murray, “Mathematical Biology”, Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg (1989), pp. 372–592.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. LeVay, M. Connoly, J.D. Houde, and D.C. Essen “The Complete Pattern of Ocular Dominance Stripes in the Striate Cortex and Visual Field of the Macaque Monkey”, J. Neurosci., 5: 486 (1985).PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    T.N. Wiesel, Nobel Lecture, “The Postnatal Development of the Visual Cortex and the Influence of Environment”, Biosci. Reports 2: 351 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    J.R. Thomson, “Co-operative Models for Pattern Formation in Primate Visual Cortex: Simulation of Phase Behavior”, M.Sc. Thesis, McGill University, 1989;Google Scholar
  5. J.R. Thomson, Wm Cowan, M.J. Zuckermann and M. Grant in “Lectures on Thermodyanamics and Statistical Mechanics: Proceedings of the XVIII Winter Meeting on Statistical Physics” (ed. A.E. Gonzalez, M. Medina-Noyola and C. Varea), World Scientific, Singapore, (1989), pp. 38–51.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    J.R. Thomson, Z. Zhang, Wm Cowan, M. Grant, J.A. Hertz and M.J. Zuckermann, “A Simple Model for Pattern Formation in Primate Visual Cortex in the Case of Monocular Deprivation”, Physica Scripta T33: 102 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.
    D.O. Hebb, “Organisation of Behavior”, John Wiley and Sons, New York (1949).Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    B.M. Dow, R.G. Vautin R. and Bauer, “The Mapping of Visual Space onto Foveal Striate Cortex in the Macaque Monkey”, J. Neurosci. 324: 221 (1982).Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    J.D. Gunton and M. Droz, M, “Introduction to the Theory of Metastable and Unstable States”, Springer Verlag, Heidelberg (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 9.
    K.R. Elder and M. Grant, “Singular Perturbation Theory for Phase Front Dynamics and Pattern Selection”, J. Phys. (London) A23: L803 (1989).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    J.R. Thomson, K.R. Elder, G. Soga, Z. Zhang, Wm Cowan, M.Grant and M.J. Zuckermann, “Neural Networks with Constrained Inputs as Models for Primate Visual Cortex”, Phys. Rev. A,(submitted).Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    W. Singer, F. Tretter and R. Vinon, “Central Gating of Developmental Plasticity in Kitten Visual Cortex”, J. Neurosci., 5: 890 (1985).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wm. Cowan
    • 1
  • M. J. Zuckermann
    • 2
  1. 1.Departments of Psychology and Computer ScienceUniversity of WaterlooWaterlooCanada
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations