Calcium Release and Force Development in Rat Myocardium

  • H. E. D. J. ter Keurs
  • P. H. Backx
  • H. Banijamali
  • B. MacIntosh
  • W. D. Gao
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 311)


It is well known that cardiovascular control mechanisms which adjust cardiac output to the bloodflow required by the organs in the body continuously modulate force of the heartbeat. The balance between the vagal and sympathetic activities dictates the heart rate, and hence through the force-frequency and force-interval relationships the contractile state of the heart. In addition, adrenergic transmitters and hormones control both calcium transport and the sensitivity of the contractile filaments to calcium ions in the myocyte by their modulation of phosphorylation of calcium channels, calcium pumps and troponin-I. Adjustment of the venous tone by the cardiovascular control mechanisms dictates the work put out by the heart through the mechanism described by Starling, that the change of venous and hence end-diastolic pressure which results from activation of the control system leads to a change in stretch of the cardiac sarcomeres and thereby an increase or decrease of the response of the contractile filaments to calcium ions.


Muscle Length Sarcomere Length Calcium Transient Terminal Cisterna Intracellular Calcium Transient 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. E. D. J. ter Keurs
    • 1
  • P. H. Backx
    • 1
  • H. Banijamali
    • 1
  • B. MacIntosh
    • 1
  • W. D. Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Medicine and Medical PhysiologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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