Analysis of Viroid Pathogenicity by Genome Modification

  • Rosemarie W. Hammond
  • Robert A. Owens
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 212)


Viroids are the smallest autonomously replicating pathogenic agents yet described.1 Viroids are low molecular weight RNAs (1.1–1.3 × 105) that can be isolated from certain species of plants afflicted with specific diseases. Although viroids have been discovered because they cause symptoms in some hosts, they are often replicated in other hosts without causing obvious damage.


Intermediate Strain Terminal Loop Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid Gall Tissue Viroid Infection 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rosemarie W. Hammond
    • 1
  • Robert A. Owens
    • 1
  1. 1.Microbiology and Plant Pathology LaboratoryUSDA-ARSBeltsvilleUSA

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