Cytosolic Enzymes in Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis as Potential Antibacterial Targets

  • W. Stephen Faraci

Abstract

The bacterial cell wall provides structural integrity necessary to prevent osmotic-induced cell lysis. The peptidoglycan layer is the primary structural component which gives the cell wall its rigid structure. Peptidoglycan is composed of glycan chains with alternating N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid residues that are cross-linked through a peptide bridge (89). As shown in Figure 8.1, crosslinking occurs via nucleophilic attack of the meso-diaminopimelate (meso-A2pm) amino group of one glycan strand on the penultimate D-ala-D-ala group on another glycan strand. Gram-positive bacteria ( e.g. , S. aureus ) differ in strand crosslinking in that they utilize a pentaglycine bridge instead of meso-A2pm. The β-lactam antibiotics irreversibly acylate proteins present in the cell membrane which catalyze transpeptidation and D,D-carboxypeptidation of the peptidoglycan. (For review, see 79.) Inability to crosslink the different glycan chains leads to cell wall degradation by bacterial autolysins, thus leading to cell death.

Keywords

Bacillus Vancomycin Uridine Borohydride Corynebacterium 

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  • W. Stephen Faraci

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