Transforming growth factor-ß: localization and possible functional roles in cardiac myocytes

  • Anita B. Roberts
  • Michael B. Sporn
Part of the Developments in Cardiovascular Medicine book series (DICM, volume 147)


Recently it has become appreciated that the myocardium produces several growth factors (cytokines) and that their expression is highly regulated not only in development but also in injury and disease [1]. One of these cytokines, transforming growth factor-ß (TGF-ß), a dimeric, multifunctional peptide [2], is expressed at high levels in the heart during both embryonic and adult life [3,4]. In this brief review, we will discuss the results of investigations directed at elucidating the role of TGF-ß in the heart with emphasis on its localization in the adult myocardium, its possible function in maintaining the rhythmic, contractile nature of cardiac tissue, and its role in response of the heart to injury and to ischemia.


Nitric Oxide Cardiac Myocytes Beat Rate Beating Rate Neonatal Cardiac Myocytes 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anita B. Roberts
  • Michael B. Sporn

There are no affiliations available

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