Functional Aspects of Collateral Development in Animal Models

  • Hitonobu Tomoike


Coronary collateral circulation is a defense mechanism, in cases of gradual coronary narrowing or obstruction (4, 2). However, collateralization is not unique to the coronary circulation. Derangement in perfusion, in general, accompanies angiogenesis and/or further dilation of pre-existing anastomotic channels toward the perturbed area in the brain, lung, skeletal muscle, kidney and so on (3). Although unused pathways between major coronary arteries can be present in the intact heart, even in the newborn (4), the presence of an anastomosis cannot be equated with collateral channels in hearts with ischemic heart disease (5). Not only angiogenesis or de novo vascular formation but also expansion of pre-existing collaterals involve active cell proliferation (6). Recent advances in molecular biology are revealing interesting and clinically important phenomena related to collateral development (7). Nevertheless, factors related to collateral growth in vivo are complex, and are a matter for conjecture.


Left Anterior Descend Collateral Development Coronary Stenosis Coronary Occlusion Regional Wall Motion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Schwarz F, Flameng W, Ensslen R, Sesto M, Thormann J (1978) Am Heart J 95:570–577PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Maruoka Y, Tomoike H, Kawachi Y, Noguchi K, Nakamura M (1986) Br J Exp Pathol 67:33–42PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hudlicka O and Tyler KR (1986) Angiogenesis: The Growth of the Vascular System. Academic Press, London p143–149Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zanchi M, Locatelli L (1958) Folia Hered. Path. 7:63–80Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fulton WFH (1963) Scot Med J 8:466–474PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schaper W, DeBrabander M, Lewi P (1971) Circ Res 28:671–679PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Folkman J, Klagsbrun M (1987) Science 235: 442–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fulton WFM (1965) The Coronary Arteries. Charles C Thomas, Springfield, ILGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gregg DE (1974) Circ Res 1974;35:335–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Theroux P, Franklin D, Ross J Jr, Kemper WS (1974) Circ Res 35:896–908PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tomoike H, Franklin D, Mckown D, Kemper WS, Guberek M, Ross J Jr (1978) Circ Res 42:487–496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gallagher KP, Kumada T, Koziol JA, McKown MD, Kemper WS, Ross J Jr (1980) Circulation 62:1266–1274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vatner SF (1980) Circ Res 47:201–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Tomoike H, Ootsubo H, Sakai K, Kikuchi Y, Nakamura M (1981) Am J Physiol 240:H73–H79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tomoike H, Franklin D, Kemper WS, McKown D, Ross J Jr (1981) Am J Physiol 241:H519–H524Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tomoike H, Inou T, Watanabe K, Mizukami M, Kikuchi Y, Nakamura M (1983) Circulation 67:1001–1008PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ross J Jr, Franklin D (1976) Circulation suppl I:88–92Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yamamoto H, Tomoike H, Shimokawa H, Nabeyama S, Nakamura M (1984) Circ Res 55:623–632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Litvak JL, Siderides LS, Vineberg AM (1957) Am Heart J 53:505–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Inou T, Tomoike H, Watanabe K, Kikuchi Y, Mizukami M, Kurozumi T, Nakamura M (1980) Basic Res Cardiol 1980;75:537–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gould KL, Lipscomb K, Hamilton GW (1974) Am J Cardiol 33:87–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Takeshita A, Koiwaya Y, Nakamura M, Yamamoto K, Torii S (1982) Chest 82:319–322PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Tada M, Yamagishi M, Kodama K, Kuzuya T, Nanto S, Inoue M, Abe H (1983) Circulation 67:693–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Fujita M, McKown DP, McKown MD, Hartley JW, Franklin D (1987) Cardiovasc Res 21:377–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mohri M, Tomoike H, Noma M, Inoue T, Hisano K, Nakamura M (1988) Circ Res 64:287–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Olsson RA, Gregg DE (1965) Am J Physiol 208:224–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schlesinger MJ (1938) Am Heart J 15:528–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Olsson RA, Snow JA, Gentry MK (1978) Circ Res 42:358–362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schaper W (1967) Experientia 23:595–596PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Inou T, Tomoike H, Hisano K, Nakamura M (1988) J Am Coll Cardiol 11:187-­191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kamiya A, Togawa T (1980) Am J Physiol 239:H14–H21PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Noma M, Tomoike H, Ando H, Nakamura M (1987) Circulation 76(suppl IV):327(Abstr)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Marcus ML, Wright CB, Doty DB, Eastham C, Langhlin D, Krumm P, Fastonow C, Brody M (1981) Circ Res 49:877–891PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Cohen MV (1982) Cardiovasc Res 16:339–349PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gould KL (1978) Am J Cardiol 41:267–278PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nabeyama S, Tomoike H, Hisano K, Shimokawa H, Inoue T, Yamamoto H, Nakamura M (1987) Cardiovas Res 21:177–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hisano K, Tomoike H, Inoue T, Mohri M, Nakamura M (1989) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 248:1289–1296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Noguchi K, Tomoike H, Ootsubo H, Sakai K, Kikuchi Y, Nakamura M (1981) J Pharmacol Exp Ther 219:809–814PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tomoike H, Ross J Jr, Franklin D, Crozatier B, Mckown D, Kemper WS (1978) Am J Cardiol 41:689–696PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Mohri M, Tomoike H, Inoue T, Nakamura M (1989) Am Heart J 117:43–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Scheel KW (1990) In “Coronary Circulation; Basic Mechanism and Clinical Relevance” Ed by Kajiya F, Klassen GA, Spaan JAE, Hoffman JIE, Springer-Verlag, Tokyo, pp 255–266Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hitonobu Tomoike
    • 1
  1. 1.The First Department of Internal MedicineYamagata University, School of MedicineYamagataJapan

Personalised recommendations