The civil engineering industry is conservative. Today’s construction is engineered to be operational far into the future, and it is normal to design new installations with a 100-year working life. Fortunately, engineers working in the nineteenth century also held this view, and their utility systems still serve us. If utilities are to accept new ideas, they must be assured of the long-term performance and durability of what is being proposed.
KeywordsOpen Cutting Pressure Pipe Business Disruption High Direct Cost Frictional Load
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