Causes of Signal Impairment

  • S. Tirró


The quality of the received signal may be impaired by many causes, such as noise, equipment distortions and/or mismatching, spectrum truncation, interference, propagation delay, and echo. All these causes are discussed extensively in this chapter, whereas other causes impairing the transmission of digital signals, such as modem imperfections, will be discussed in Chapter 10.


Propagation Delay Shot Noise Noise Temperature Pulse Code Modulation Satellite Communication System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    J. B. Johnson, “Thermal agitation of electricity in conductors,” Phys. Rev.,vol. 32, pp. 97–109, 1928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    H. Nyquist, “Thermal agitation of electrical charge in conductors,” Phys. Rev., vol. 32, pp. 110–113, (1928).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    IEEE Standard 161–1971 (reaffirmed 1980), “Standard definitions on electron tubes,” 1980.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    W. B. Davenport and W. L. Root, An Introduction to the Theory of Random Signals and Noise, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958, pp. 81–82.MATHGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    S. 0. Rice, “Mathematical analysis of random noise,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 23 282–332 (1944) and 24 46–156 (1945).Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    W. R. Bennett, “Spectra of quantized signals,” Bell Syst. Tech. J. 27, 446–472 (1948).Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    CCITT Recommendation G. 711, “Pulse code modulation (PCM) of voice frequencies,” Red Book, Vol. III, Fasc. III.3, Geneva, 1985.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    B. Smith, “Instantaneous companding of quantized signals,” Bell Syst. Tech. J.,May 1957, vol. 36, pp. 653–709.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    R. F. Purton, “Survey of telephone speech-signal statistics and their significance in the choice of a PCM companding law,” Proc. IEE 109 60–66 (1962).Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    K. W. CattermoleDiscussion on the above paper by Purton,” Proc. IEE 109, 485–487 (1962).Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Bell Laboratories, Transmission Systems for Communications,1982, pp. 621–623.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    M. Imbeaux, CNET, private communication.Google Scholar
  13. [13]
    A. Berman and E. Podraczky, “Experimental determination of intermodulation distortion produced in a wideband communication repeater,” IEEE Int. Convention Record 15 (Part 2), 69–88 (1967).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    J. C. Fuenzalida, O. Shimbo and W. L. Cook, “Time-domain analysis of intermodulation effects caused by non-linear amplifiers,” Comsat Tech. 3 89–141 (1973).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    R. J. Westcott, “Investigation of multiple FM/FDM carriers through a satellite TWT operating near to saturation,” Proc. IEE 144 726–740 (1967).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    CCIR, Handbook on Satellite Communications (Fixed-Satellite Service), Geneva, 1985.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    G. Zanotti, Number of 3rd-Order Intermodulation Products Generated in a Nonlinear Amplifier, Telespazio internal report, Feb. 1988.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    CCITT Recommendation G.114, “Mean one-way propagation time,” Red Book, Vol. III, Fasc. III.1, Geneva, 1985.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    T. H. Curtis et al., “Use of a digital echo canceller in the AT&T Domsat intertoll network,” Fifth Int. Conf. on Digital Satellite Communications,Genoa, March 1981, pp. 227–234.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Tirró
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Engineering S.r.1RomaItaly

Personalised recommendations