Genetic Variation and Relationships among Population Groups of Europe

  • Hubert Walter
  • Heidi Danker-Hopfe

Abstract

The study of genetic variation in man and its causes is without doubt one of the most interesting and important topics of human biology. Comprehensive presentations of this field of human biological research — the genetics of human populations — have been given among others by Cavalli-Sforza and Bodmer (1971) and more recently by Vogel and Motulsky (1986) and Harrison (1988). It has been shown by numerous population studies in almost every part of the world that the considerable genetic variation in human population is the result of the operation of several factors such as mutation, selection, genetic drift, founder effects, gene flow, geographical, social and cultural isolation, which, however, do not operate independently, but are intricately interrelated. At present it is, however, almost impossible to evaluate the specific contributions of the various factors and their interrelationships to the genetic profile of any human population or group of populations in complete detail.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ammermann, A.J., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L.,1984, “The Neolithic Transition and the genetics of Populations in Europe,” Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.Google Scholar
  2. Bertranpetit, J., Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., 1991, A genetic reconstruction of the history of the population of the Iberian PeninsulaAnn. Hum. Genet.55: 51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., 1992, Stammbäume von Völkern and SprachenSpektrum der Wissensehaft1 January:90.Google Scholar
  4. Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Bodmer, W.F., 1971, “The Genetics of Human Populations,” W.H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco.Google Scholar
  5. Fodor, J., Czeizel, A., 1991, The origins of the Hungarian populationin“Genetics of the Hungarian Population. Ethnic Aspects, Genetic Markers, Ecogenetics and Disease Spectrum,” Czeizel, A., Benkmann, H.-G., Goedde, H.W., eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin. p. 7.Google Scholar
  6. Gamkrelidse, Th. W., Iwanow, W.W., 1990, Die Frühgeschichte der indoeuropäischen SprachenSpektrum der Wissenschaft5 May: 130.Google Scholar
  7. Haldane, J.B.S., 1940, The Blood-group frequencies of European Peoples, and racial origins.Hum. Biol.12: 457.Google Scholar
  8. Harrison, G.A., 1988, Human genetics and variationin“Human Biology: An Introduction to Human Evolution, Variation, Growth, and Adaptability,” Harrison, G.A., Tanner, J.M., Pilbeam, D.R., Baker, P.T., eds., Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 145.Google Scholar
  9. Mastana, S.S., and Papiha, S.S., 1992, Origin of the Romany Gypsies — genetic evidenceZ. Morph. Anthrop.79: 43.Google Scholar
  10. Meinander, C.F., 1986, Die ethnogenese der Finno-Ugrier aus der Sicht der Vor - und Frühgeschichtein“Ethnogenese europäischer Völker,” Bernhard, W., Kandler-Pálsson, A., Hg., Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart. p. 363.Google Scholar
  11. Mourant, A.E., 1983, “Blood Relations, Blood Groups and Anthropology,” Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  12. Mourant, A.E., Kopec, A.C., Domaniewska-Sobczak, K., 1976, “The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups and other Polymorphisms,” Second edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  13. Nei, M., 1972, Genetic distance between populations.Amer. Nat.106: 283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Renfrew, C., 1989, Der ursprung der indoeuropäischen Sprachfamilie.Spektrum der Wissenschaft12 December: 114.Google Scholar
  15. Rishi, W.R., 1976, “Roma: The Panjabi Emigrants in Europe, Central and Middle Asia, the USSR and the Americas,” Punjabi University, Patiala.Google Scholar
  16. Roychoudhury, A.K., Nei, M., 1988, “Human Polymorphic Genes, World Distribution,” Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  17. Ruhlen, M., 1987, “A Guide to the World’s Languages — Vol. 1: Classification,” Standford University Press, Standord.Google Scholar
  18. Sokal, R.R., 1991, Ancient movement patterns determine modern genetic variances in EuropeHum. Biol.63: 589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Sokal, R.R., Oden, N.L., Thomson, B.A., 1988, Genetic changes across language boundaries in Europe, Amer.J. Phys. Anthrop.76: 337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sokal, R.R., Oden, N.L., Legendre, P., Fortin, M.-J., Kim, J., Vandor, A., 1989a. Genetic differences among language families in Europe, Amer.J. Phys. Anthrop.79: 489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sokal, R.R., Harding, R.M., Oden, N.L., 1989b, Spatial patterns of human gene frequencies in EuropeAmer. J. Phys. Anthrop.80: 267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Stevenson, J.C., Buell, P.D., Schanfield, M.S., 1988, European population movements and genetic marker distributionsInt. J. Anthrop.3: 319.Google Scholar
  23. Tauszik, T., Hummel, K., 1991, Blood groups and the results of certain blood group tests in Hungaryin“Genetics of the Hungarian Population. Ethnic Aspects, Genetic markers, Ecogenetics and Disease Spectrum,” Czeizel, A., Benkmann, H.-G., Goedde, H.W., eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin. p. 116.Google Scholar
  24. The Cambridge Encyclopedia, 1991, Crystal, D., ed., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  25. Tills, D., Kopec, A.C., Tills, R.E., 1983, “The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups and other Polymorphisms, Supplement 1,” Oxford University Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  26. Vogel, F., Motulsky, A.G., 1986, “Human Genetics. Problems and Approaches,” Second edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  27. Vossen, R., Zigeuner, 1983, “Roma, Sinti, Gitanos, Gypsies zwischen Verfolgung und Romantisierung,” Ullstein, Frankfurt.Google Scholar
  28. Walter, H., 1962, “Die Bedeutung der Serologischen Merkmale für die neue Rassenkunde,” Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  29. Walter, H., Danker-Hopfe, H., Bhasin, M.K., 1991, “Anthropologie Indiens. Untersuchungen zur genetischen Variabilität der Bevölkerung Indiens mit besonderer Berücksichtigung ihrer regionalen, ethno-sozialen und sprachlichen Gliederung,” Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hubert Walter
    • 1
  • Heidi Danker-Hopfe
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human BiologyUniversity of BremenBremen 33Germany

Personalised recommendations