Lorente de Nó: The Electrophysiological Experiments of the Latter Years

  • Lawrence Kruger
Part of the NATO ASI series book series (NSSA, volume 239)


Among the truly prominent figures of 20th century neuroscience it is difficult to identify anyone who can approach the breadth and versatility of Rafael Lorente de Nó. In recent years there has been a strong revival of interest in the anatomical studies of his early youth, especially the Golgi stain analyses of the cerebral cortex. He remained interested in this for the remainder of his extraordinary career, but shortly after his arrival in the United States, working at the Central Institute for the Deaf in St. Louis, he was inevitably caught up in the excitement generated by the newly emerging electrophysiological methods used with such impressive success by Erlanger, Bishop, Gasser, Heinbecker, O’Leary and others in that vibrant era at Washington University. Expressing a life long penchant for originality, Lorente soon seized upon the application of electrophysiology to the problem of synaptic integration in the central nervous system. He was particularly enamored of the idea of reverberating circuits and was certain that he would find a role for the ubiquitous interneurons in the production of prolonged electrical events that must underlie the enhancement of reflexes.


Methylene Blue Myelinated Fiber Nerve Impulse Myelinated Axon Myelinated Nerve Fiber 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adrian, E.D., 1930, The effects of injury on mammalian nerve fibres, Proc. roy. Soc., B106:596.Google Scholar
  2. Bostock, H. and Sears, T.A., 1978, The internodal axon membrane: Electrical excitability and continuous conduction in segmental demyelination, J. Physiol., 280:273–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Cajal, S.R., 1896, El azul de metileno en los centros nerviosos, Rev. trim. microgr., 1:151.Google Scholar
  4. Cajal, S.R., 1909, “Histologie dy systè me nerveux”, vol. 1. A.Maloine, Paris.Google Scholar
  5. Crescitelli, F., 1951, Nerve sheath as a barrier to the diffussion of certain substances, Am. J. Physiol., 166:229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. de Cervantes Saavedra, M., 1957, “Don Quixote of La Mancha”, New American Library, New York. Modified. from the W.Starkie translation.Google Scholar
  7. Feng, T.P., and Liu, Y.M., 1949, The connective tissue sheath of nerve as effective diffusion barrier, J. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 34:33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grissmer, S., 1986, Properties of potassium and sodium channels in frog internode, J. Physiol., 381:119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Honrubia, V. and Lorente de Nó, R., 1962, On the effect of anesthetics upon isolated, single frog nerve fibers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 48:2065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Huxley, A.F. and Stämpfli, R., 1951a, Evidence for saltatory conduction in peripheral myelinated nerve fibers, J. Physiol., 108:315.Google Scholar
  11. Huxley, A.F. and Stámpfli, R., 1951b, Effects of potassium and sodium on resting and action potentials of single myelinated fibers, J. Physiol., 112:496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Jonas, P., Bräu, M.E., Hermsteiner, K., and Vogel, W., 1989, Single-channel recording in myelinated nerve fibers reveals one type of Na channel but different K channels, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86:7238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kato, G., 1943, “The Microphysiology of Nerve”, Maruzen, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  14. Katz, B. and Schmitt, O.H., 1940, Electric interaction between two adjacent nerve fibres, J. Physiol., 97:471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Larramendi, L.M.H., Lorente de Nó, R., and Vidal, F., 1956, Restoration of sodium-deficient frog nerve fibres by an isotonic solution of guanidinium chloride, Nature, 178:316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lorente de Nó, 1934, Studies on the structure of the cerebral cortex.II. continuation of the study of ammonic system, J. Physiol. Neurol., 46:113.Google Scholar
  17. Lorente de Nó, R., 1939, Transmission of impulses through cranial motor nuclei, J. Neurophysiol., 2:402.Google Scholar
  18. Lorente de No, R., 1947a, Action potential of the motoneurons of the hypoglossus nucleus, J. Cell Comp. Physiol., 29:207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lorente de Nó, R., 1947b, A study of nerve physiology. Studies from the Rockefeller Institute, New York, vols. 131 and 132.Google Scholar
  20. Lorente de Nó, R., 1949, On the effect of certain quaternary ammonium ions upon frog nerve, J. Cell Comp. Physiol., 33 (suppl. 1):3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lorente de Nó, R., 1952, Observations on the properties of the epineurium of frog nerve, Cold Spr. Harb. Symp. quant. Biol., XVII:299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lorente de Nó, 1953, Observations on vital staining of the axons of myelinated fibers, Folia Psychiatr. Neurol. Neurochir. Neerl., 56:3.Google Scholar
  23. Lorente de Nó, R., 1959, Decrementai conduction and summation of stimuli delivered to neurons at distant synapses, in: “Structure and Function of the Cerebral Cortex”, Proc. 2nd int. Mtg. Neurobiologist, D.B. Tower and J.P. Schadé, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  24. Lorente de Nó, R., 1961, Decrementai conduction in peripheral nerve. Nature of the nerve impulse, “Bioelectrogenesis”, Proc. Symp. Comp. Bioelectrogen., C. Chagas and A.Paes de Carvalho, eds., Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  25. Lorente de Nó, R., 1971, Theory of the voltage clamp of the nerve membrane, I. Ideal clamp, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 68:192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lorente de Nó, R., 1981, “The Primary Acoustic Nuclei”, Raven Press, New York, pp. 139.Google Scholar
  27. Lorente de Nó, R. and Condouris, G.A., 1959, Décrémentai conduction in peripheral nerve. Integration of stimuli in the neuron, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 45:592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lorente de Nó, R. and Honrubia, V., 1964a, Electrical stimulation of the internodes of single fibers of desheathed nerves, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 52:1142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lorente de Nó, R. and Honrubia, V., 1964b, Electrical stimulation of the internodes of single fibers of nerves with intact sheath, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 52:783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lorente de Nó, R., and Honrubia, V., 1965a, Production of action potentials by the internodes of isolated myelinated nerve fibers, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 53:757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lorente de Nó, R. and Honrubia, V., 1965b, Theory of the flow of action currents in isolated myelinated nerve fibers, I., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 53:938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lucas, K., 1917, “Conduction of the nerve impulse”, Longmans, London, pp. 102.Google Scholar
  33. Lundberg, A., 1951, Electrotonus in frog spinal roots and sciatic trunk, Acta Physiol. Scand., 23:234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Marrazzi, A.S. and Lorente de Nó, R., 1944, Interaction of neighboring fibres in myelinated nerve, J. Neurophysiol., 7:83.Google Scholar
  35. Rashbass, C. and Rushton, W.A.H., 1949, The relation of structure to the spread of excitation in the frog’s sciatic nerve. J. Physiol., 110:110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sanders, F.K. and Whitteridge, D., 1946, Conduction velocity and myelin thickness in regenerating nerve fibres, J. Physiol., 105:152.Google Scholar
  37. Tasaki, I., 1959, Conduction of the nerve impulse, in: “Handbook of Physiology. Neurophysiology, Vol.1”, J. Field, ed., American Physiological Society, Washington, D.C., pp. 75–121.Google Scholar
  38. Wilson, G.F. and Chiu, S.Y., 1990, Ion channels in axon and Schwann cell membranes at paranodes of mammalian myelinated fibers studies with patch clamp, J. Neurosci., 10:3263.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lawrence Kruger
    • 1
  1. 1.Departments of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Anesthesiology and the Brain Research InstituteUCLA Medical CenterLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations