Follicular Dendritic Cells in Germinal Center Reactions
Data implicating antigen persisting in lymphoid follicles in the production of germinal centers and B memory cells has been available for many years1,2,3. Follicular dendritic cells (FDC) represent the specialized cells which bind and retain the immunogen in the follicles for many months. The basic concept is that FDC with their associated antigens represent the accessory cell population responsible for the stimulation of antigen-specific B cells and subsequent germinal center formation. In recent years this concept has been further supported by computer assisted morphometric analysis and in vitro studies of germinal center formation using isolated FDC. A summary of recent results are listed in Table 1 (top of the next page). The items enumerated in Table 1 will be explained in subsequent sections of this paper in the sequence listed.
KeywordsGerminal Center Immune Mouse Lymphoid Follicle Follicular Dendritic Cell Costimulatory Signal
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.G. L. Thorbecke, T. J. Romano, and S. P. Lerman, Regulatory mechanisms in proliferation and differentiation of lymphoid tissue, with particular reference to germinal center development, in: “Progress in Immunology,” L. Brent and J. Holbrow, eds., North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam (1974).Google Scholar
- 3.J. G. Thorbecke and S. P. Lerman, Germinal centers and their role in immune responses, in: “The Reticuloendothelial System in Health and Disease: Functions and Characteristics,” S. M. Reichard, M. R. Escobar, and H. Friedman, eds., Plenum Press, N. Y (1976).Google Scholar
- 5.A. K. Szakal, J. K. Taylor, J. P. Smith, M. H. Kosco, G. F. Burton, and J. G. Tew, Kinetics of germinal center development in lymph nodes of young and aging immune mice, Anat. Rec. In press (1990 c).Google Scholar
- 6.A. K. Szakal, J. K. Taylor, J. P. Smith, M. H. Kosco, G. F. Burton, and J. G. Tew, Morphometry and kinetics of antigen transport and developing antigen retaining reticulum of follicular dendritic cells in lymph nodes of aging immune mice, Aging: Immunol. and Inf. Dis. 1: 7 (1988 b).Google Scholar
- 8.G. G. B. Klaus and A. Kunkl, The role of germinal centers in the generation of immunological memory, in: “Microenvironments in Haemmopoietic and Lymphoid Differentiation, CIBA Foundation Symposium 84,” Pitman Medical, London (1981).Google Scholar
- 9.A. K. Szakal, J. K. Taylor, J. P. Smith, M. H. Kosco, G. F. Burton, and J. G. Tew, Kinetics of germinal center development in lymph nodes of young and aging immune mice, Anat. Rec. In press (1990 c).Google Scholar
- 11.G. F. Burton, M. H. Kosco, A. K. Szakal, and J. G. Tew, Iccosomes and the secondary antibody response, Immunol. 73: 271–276 (1991).Google Scholar