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History of Energetic Solar Protons for the Past Three Solar Cycles Including Cycle 22 Update

  • M. A. Shea
  • D. F. Smart
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 243B)

Abstract

Solar proton events have been recorded at the earth since 1942 although the detection techniques varied considerably over the past 50 years. From 1942 to 1957 the identification of solar proton events was limited to very high energy events. This situation improved over the next decade after which lower energy solar proton events became routinely identified by satellite measurements. Even though the detection threshold differed between the 19th and more recent cycles, more than 200 solar proton events with a flux of over 10 protons/cm2-sec-ster above 10 MeV have been recorded at the earth in the last three solar cycles. From the composite record of major solar proton events that have occurred during each of the last five solar cycles, it appears that the 20th and 21st solar cycles are deficient in extremely high energy long duration solar particle events. A summary of solar proton events for the past 50 years is given together with information on the flux of solar protons to various spacecraft orbits.

Keywords

Solar Cycle Interplanetary Magnetic Field Solar Energetic Particle Neutron Monitor Solar Proton 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Shea
    • 1
  • D. F. Smart
    • 1
  1. 1.Space Physics Division, Geophysics Directorate/PLHanscom AFBBedfordUSA

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