Advertisement

Treatment of Nocturnal Enuresis

  • Stuart L. Kaplan
  • Joan Busner
Part of the The Plenum Behavior Therapy Series book series (PBTS)

Abstract

Although functional enuresis is one of the more objectively measurable disorders clinicians treat, there is considerable disagreement about its definition.

Keywords

Relapse Rate Nocturnal Enuresis Tangible Reward Functional Bladder Capacity Enuretic Child 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aladjem, M., Wohl, R., Boichis, H., Orda, S., Lotan, D., & Freedman, S. (1982). Desmopressin in nocturnal enuresis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 57, 137–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alford, G.S., Zegiob, L., & Bristow, A.R. (1982). Use of instructions and apparatus-enhanced suggestion in treating a case of headaches, nightmares and nocturnal enuresis. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research & Practice, 19, 110–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambrosini, P.J. (1984). A pharmacological paradigm for urinary incontinence and enuresis. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4, 247–252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed.-revised). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  5. Azrin, N.H., Sneed, T.J., & Fox, R.M. (1974). Dry-bed training: Rapid elimination of childhood enuresis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 12, 147–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baozhu, S., & Xiyou, W. (1985). Short-term effect in 135 cases of enuresis treated by wrist-ankle needling. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 5(1), 27–28.Google Scholar
  7. Bennett, H.J. (1982). Imipramine and enuresis: Never forget its dangers [letter]. Pediatrics, 69, 831–832.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Biederman, J. (1991). Sudden death in children treated with a tricyclic antidepressant. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 495–498.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Blackwell, B., & Currah, J. (1973). The psychopharmacology of nocturnal enuresis. In I. Kolvin, R. MacKeith, & S.R. Meadow (Eds.), Bladder control and enuresis (pp. 231–257). London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  10. Bollard, J., & Nettelbeck, T. (1981). A comparison of dry-bed training and standard urine-alarm conditioning treatment of childhood bedwetting. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 19, 215–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bollard, J., & Nettelbeck, T. (1982). A component analysis of dry-bed training for treatment for bedwetting. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 20, 383–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bollard, R.J., & Woodroffe, P. (1977). The effect of parent-administered dry-bed training on nocturnal enuresis in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 15, 159–165.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Breit, M., Kaplan, S.L., Gauthier, B., & Weinhold, C. (1984). The dry-bed method for the treatment of enuresis: A failure to duplicate previous reports. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 6(3), 17–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Butler, R.J., Forsythe, W.I., & Robertson, J. (1990). The body-worn alarm in the treatment of childhood enuresis. British Journal of Clinical Practice, 44, 237–241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Crawford, J.D. (1989). Treatment of nocturnal enuresis, introductory comments. Journal of Pediatrics, 114, 687–690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. DeJonge, G.A. (1973). Epidemiology of enuresis: A survey of the literature. In I. Kolvin, R. MacKeith, & S.R. Meadow (Eds.), Bladder control and enuresis (pp. 39–46). London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  17. DeLeon, G., & Mandell, W. (1966). A comparison of conditioning and psychotherapy in the treatment of functional enuresis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 22, 326–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Doleys, D.M. (1977). Behavioral treatments for nocturnal enuresis in children: A review of the recent literature. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 30–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Doleys, D.M. (1979). Assessment and treatment of childhood enuresis. In A.J. Finch & P.C. Kendall (Eds.), Clinical treatment & research in child psychopathology (pp. 207–233). New York: Medical & Scientific Books.Google Scholar
  20. Doleys, D.M., Ciminero, A.R., Tollison, J.W., Williams, C.L., & Wells, K.C. (1977). Dry-bed training and retention control training: A comparison. Behavior Therapy, 8, 541–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Edwards, S.D., & Van Der Spuy, H.I.J. (1985). Hypnotherapy as a treatment for enuresis. Journal of Child Psychology, 26(1), 161–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fielding, D. (1980). The response of day and night wetting children and children who wet only at night to retention control training and the enuresis alarm. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 18, 305–317.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fincham, F.D., & Spettell, C. (1984). The acceptability of dry bed training and urine alarm training as treatments of nocturnal enuresis. Behavior Therapy, 15, 388–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Finley, W.W., Besserman, R.L., Bennett, L.F., Clapp, R.K., & Finley, P.M. (1973). The effect of continuous, intermittent, and “placebo” reinforcement on the effectiveness of the conditioning treatment for enuresis nocturna. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 11, 289–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Finley, W.W., Rainwater, A.J., & Johnson, G. (1982). Effect of varying alarm schedules on acquisition and relapse parameters in the conditioning treatment of enuresis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 20, 69–80.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fordham, K.E., & Meadow, S.R. (1989). Controlled trial of standard pad and bell alarm against mini alarm for nocturnal enuresis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 64, 651–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Forsythe, W.I., & Butler, R.J. (1989). Fifty years of enuretic alarms. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 64, 879–885.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fournier, J.P., Garfinkel, B.D., Bond, A., Beauchesne, H., & Shapiro, S.K. (1987). Pharmacological and behavioral management of enuresis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 849–853.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Geffken, G., Johnson, S.B., & Walker, D. (1986). Behavioral interventions for childhood nocturnal enuresis: The differential effect of bladder capacity on treatment progress and outcome. Health Psychology, 5, 261–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gemmell, H.A., & Jacobson, B.H. (1989). Chiropractic management of enuresis: Time-series descriptive design. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, 12, 386–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Hansen, G.D. (1979). Enuresis control through fading, escape, and avoidance training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12, 303–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Harris, A.S. (1989). Clinical experience with desmopressin: Efficacy and safety in central diabetes insipidus and other conditions. Journal of Pediatrics, 114, 711–718.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Janknegt, A., & Smans, A.J. (1990). Treatment with desmopressin in severe nocturnal enuresis in childhood. Journal of Urology, 66, 535–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kaplan, S.L., Breit, M., Gauthier, B., & Busner, J. (1989). A comparison of three nocturnal enuresis treatment methods. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 28, 282–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Keating, J.C., Butz, R.A., Burke, E., & Heimberg, R.G. (1983). Dry bed training without a urine alarm: Lack of effect of setting and therapist contact with child. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 14, 109–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Kimmel, H.D., & Kimmel, E. (1970). An instrumental conditioning method for the treatment of enuresis. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 1, 121–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Klauber, G.T. (1989). Clinical efficacy and safety of desmopressin in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis. Journal of Pediatrics, 114, 719–722.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kolvin, I., Taunch, J., Currah, J., Garside, R.F., Nolan, J., & Shaw, W.B. (1972). Enuresis: a descriptive analysis and a controlled trial. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 14, 715–726.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Korczyn, A.D., & Kish, I. (1979). The mechanism of imipramine in enuresis nocturna. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology, 6, 31–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kupfersmid, J. (1989, fall). Treatment of nocturnal enuresis: A status report. The Psychiatric Forum, pp. 37–46.Google Scholar
  41. Lovibond, S.H. (1963). The mechanism of conditioning treatment of enuresis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 1, 17–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lynch, N.T., Grunert, B.K., Vasudevan, V., & Severson, R.A. (1984). Enuresis: Comparison of two treatments. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 65, 98–100.Google Scholar
  43. Mikkelsen, E.J. (1991). Modern approaches to enuresis and encopresis. In Melvin Lewis (Ed.), Child and adolescent psychiatry, a comprehensive textbook (pp. 583–591). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  44. Mountjoy, P.T., Ruben, D.H., & Bradford, T.S. (1984). Recent technological advancements in the treatment of enuresis. Behavior Modification, 8, 291–315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mowrer, O.H., & Mowrer, W.M. (1938). Enuresis: A method for its study and treatment. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 8, 436–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Netley, C., Khanna, F., McKendry, J.B.J., & Lovering, J.S. (1984). Effects of different methods of treatment of primary enuresis on psychologic functioning in children. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 131, 577–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Nettelbeck, T., & Langeluddecke, P. (1979). Dry-bed training without an enuresis machine. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 17, 403–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Norgaard, J.P., Rittig, S., & Djurhuus, J.C. (1989). Nocturnal enuresis: An approach to treatment based on pathogenesis. Journal of Pediatrics, 114, 705–710.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Novick, J. (1966). Symptomatic treatment of acquired and persistent enuresis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 71, 363–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Olness, K. (1975). The use of self-hypnosis in the treatment of childhood nocturnal enuresis. Clinical Pediatrics, 273–279.Google Scholar
  51. Popper, C.W. & Elliott, G.R. (1990). Sudden death and tricyclic antidepressants: Clinical considerations for children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 1, 125–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rapoport, J.L., Mikkelsen, E.J., Zavadil, A., Nee, L., Gruenau, C., Mendelson, W., Gillin, J.L. (1980). Childhood enuresis: II. Psychopathology, tricyclic concentration in plasma, and antienuretic effects. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 1146–1152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Reynolds, G.S. (1975). A primer of opérant conditioning. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.Google Scholar
  54. Roje-Starcevic, M. (1990). The treatment of nocturnal enuresis by acupuncture. Neurologija, 39, 179–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Rushton, H.G. (1989). Nocturnal enuresis: Epidemiology, evaluation, and currently available treatment options. Journal of Pediatrics, 114, 691–696.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Rutter, M., Yule, W., & Graham, P. (1973). Enuresis and behavioural deviance: Some epidemiological considerations. In I. Kolvin, R. MacKeith, & S.R. Meadow (Eds.), Bladder control and enuresis (pp. 137–147). London: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  57. Scharf, M.B., Pravda, M.F. Jennings, S.W., Kauffman, R., & Ringel, J. (1987). Childhood enuresis. A comprehensive treatment program. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 10, 655–666.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Schmitt, B.D. (1990). Nocturnal enuresis: Finding the treatment that fits the child. Contemporary Pediatrics, 7, 70–97.Google Scholar
  59. Shaffer, D. (1985). Nocturnal enuresis: Its investigation and treatment. In D. Shaffer, A.A. Ehrhardt, & L.L. Greenhill (Eds.), The clinical guide to child psychiatry (pp. 29–47). New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  60. Shaffer, D. (1988). The clinical management of bedwetting in children. In C.J. Kestenbaum & D.T. Williams (Eds.), Handbook of clinical assessment of children and adolescents (pp. 689–710). New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Shaffer, D., Costello, A.J., & Hill, J.D. (1968). Control of enuresis with imipramine. Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 43, 665–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Starfield, B. (1967). Functional bladder capacity in enuretic and nonenuretic children. Journal of Pediatrics, 70, 777–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sudden death in children treated with a tricyclic antidepressant. (1990, June). Medical Letter on Drugs and Therapeutics, p. 53.Google Scholar
  64. Sukhai, R.N., Mol, J., & Harris, A.S. (1989). Combined therapy of enuresis alarm and desmopressin in the treatment of nocturnal enuresis. European Journal of Pediatrics, 148, 465–467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Taylor, P.D., & Turner, R.K. (1975). A clinical trial of continuous, intermittent and overlearning “bell and pad” treatments for nocturnal enuresis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 13, 281–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Terho, P. (1991). Desmopressin in nocturnal enuresis. Journal of Urology, 145, 818–820.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Troup, C.W., & Hodgson, N.B. (1971). Nocturnal functional bladder capacity in enuretic children. Journal of Urology, 105, 129–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Turner, R.K., Young, G.C., & Rachman, S. (1970). Treatment of nocturnal enuresis by conditioning techniques. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8, 367–381.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wagner, W.G. (1987). The behavioral treatment of childhood nocturnal enuresis. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 262–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wagner, W.G., & Hicks-Jimenez, K. (1986). Clinicians’ knowledge and attitudes regarding the treatment of childhood nocturnal enuresis. The Behavior Therapist, 9(4), 77–78.Google Scholar
  71. Wagner, W., Johnson, S., Walker, D., Carter, R., & Wittner, J. (1982). A controlled comparison of two treatments for nocturnal enuresis. Journal of Pediatrics, 101, 302–307.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Werry, J.S., & Cohrssen, J. (1965). Enuresis—an etiologic and therapeutic study. Journal of Pediatrics, 67, 423–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wille, S. (1986). Comparison of desmopressin and enuresis alarm for nocturnal enuresis. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 61, 30–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart L. Kaplan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joan Busner
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Rockland Children’s Psychiatric CenterOrangeburgUSA
  2. 2.College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations