Microbial Alcohol, Aldehyde and Formate Ester Oxidoreductases
Formation of alcohols by natural processes takes place in the fermentative breakdown of sugars and the oxidative dissimilation of alkanes. In view of the wide-spreadness of these processes, it is understandable that many microbial species have the capacity to degrade these compounds. Formaldehyde takes a prominent position among the aldehydes found in Nature. The reason is the frequent occurrance of natural (e.g. methylated amines) as well as man-made C1-compounds (industrial solvents like DMSO and DMF are used at large scale as well as methylated and methoxylated bulk chemicals, leading to contamination of the environment with these compounds) which are degraded via formaldehyde by a variety of C1-compounds-utilizing microbes, the so-called methylotrophs. However, also adventitious formaldehyde formation takes place, e.g. in organisms using methylated amines as a nitrogen source or in organisms using pectins, the degradation process liberating methanol from the esterified groups which can be converted to formaldehyde by alcohol oxidizing enzymes. Since formaldehyde is a toxic compound but the ability to assimilate it is confined to methylotrophs, it is obvious that most micro-organisms have developed an oxidative system to get rid of this compound.
KeywordsAlcohol Dehydrogenase Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Pseudomonas Putida Alcohol Oxidase Acetic Acid Bacterium
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Duine, J.A., Van Dijken, J.P., 1991, Enzymes of industrial potential in methylotrophs, in: “Biology of Methylotrophs,” J. Goldberg, and J.S. Rokem, eds., Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, p. 233.Google Scholar
- Fahey, R.C., and Newton, G.L., 1983, Occurence of low molecular weight thiols in biological systems, in: “Functions of glutathione,“ A. Larsson et al., ed., Raven Press, New York, p. 251.Google Scholar
- Frey, P.A., 1987, Complex pyridine nucleotide-dependent transformations, in: “Pyridine nucleotide coenzymes,” D. Dolphin et al., ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York.Google Scholar
- Geerlof, A., Van Tol, J.B.A., Jongejan, J.A., and Duine J.A., 1992, Microbial alcohol/aldehyde oxidoreductases in enantioselective conversion, in: “Microbial Reagents in Organic Synthesis,” S. Servi, ed., Kluwer Acad. Publ., Dordrecht, in pressGoogle Scholar
- Mason, R.P., and Sanders, J.K.M., 1989, In vivo enzymology: a deuterium NMR study of formaldehyde dismutase in Pseudomonas putida F61a and Staphylococcus aureus, Biochemistry 28: 2160.Google Scholar
- Pocker, Y, and Page, J.D., 1990, Zinc-activated alcohols in ternary complexes of liver alcohol dehydrogenase, J. Biol. Chem. 265: 2 2101.Google Scholar
- Tamaki, T., Fukaya, M., Takemura, H., Tayama, K., Okumura, H., Kawamura, Y., Nishiyama, M., Horinouchi, S., and Beppu, T., 1991, Cloning and sequencing of the gene cluster encoding two subunits of membrane-bound alcohol dehydrogenase from Acetobacter polyoxogenes, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1088: 292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar