Toxicity Identification and Characteristics of Produced Water Discharges from Colorado and Wyoming
In 1987, the Region VIII office of the Environmental Protection Agency began requiring dischargers holding National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits to monitor effluents for biological toxicity. This affected numerous municipal and industrial dischargers including oil and gas producers discharging produced waters to surface waters.
KeywordsSulfide Phenol Toluene Sodium Chloride Hydrocarbon
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