The Skin Conductance Orienting Response, Attention, and Schizophrenia

  • Anne M. Schell
  • Michael E. Dawson
  • Erin Hazlett
  • Diane L. Filion
  • Keith H. Nuechterlein
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (NSSA, volume 249)

Abstract

This chapter reports a series of investigations of the relationships between the skin conductance orienting response (SCR OR) and measures of automatic and controlled information processing during basic information processing tasks that are of general interest to psychophysiologists. These have included a variety of orienting tasks and also classical conditioning. We have been particularly interested in studying the effect of manipulating attention to stimuli on the SCR OR and cognitive processing measures. We began by examining attentional processes and their psychophysiological correlates in normal college undergraduates, and then extended these studies to include a population of recent-onset schizophrenic patients, a population where fundamental mechanisms of attention and information processing are agreed to be abnormal.

Keywords

Schizophrenia Kelly Decanoate Fluphenazine 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Acocella, C.M., & Blumenthal, T.D. (1990). Directed attention influences the modification of startle reflex probability. Psychological Reports, 66, 275–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anthony, B.J. (1985). In the blink of an eye: Implications of reflex modification for information processing. In P.J. Ackles, J.R. Jennings, and M.G.H. Coles (Eds.), Advances in Psychophysiology, Vol. 1, (pp. 167–218). Greenwich, CN: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  3. Bernstein, A.S. (1987). Orienting response research in schizophrenia: where we have come and where we might go. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 623–641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernstein, A.S., Frith, C.D., Gruzelier, J.H., Patterson, T., Straube, E., Venables, P.H., & Zahn, T.P. (1982). An analysis of the skin conductance orienting response in samples of American, British, and German schizophrenics. Biogical Psychology, 14, 155–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bohlin, G., & Graham, F.K. (1977). Cardiac deceleration and reflex blink facilitation. Psychophysiology, 14, 423–430.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bohlin, G., Graham, F.K., Silverstein, L.D., & Hackley, S.A. (1981). Cardiac orienting and startle blink modification in novel and signal situations. Psychophysiology, 15, 339–343.Google Scholar
  7. Braff, D.L., & Geyer, M.A. (1990). Sensorimotor gating and schizophrenia: Human and animal studies. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 181–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dawson, M.E., Filion, D.L., & Schell, A.M. (1989). Is elicitation of the autonomic orienting response associated with allocation of processing resources? Psychophysiology, 26, 560–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dawson, M.E., & Nuechterlein, K.H. (1984). Psychophysiological dysfunctions in the developmental course of schizophrenic disorders. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 10, 204–232.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dawson, M.E., Nuechterlein, K.N., & Schell, A.M. (1992). Electrodermal abnormalities in recent-onset schizophrenia: Relationships to symptoms, prognosis, and processes. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 18, 295–311.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Dawson, M.E., Schell, A.M., Beers, J.R., & Kelly, A. (1982). Allocation of cognitive processing capacity during human autonomic classical conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 111, 273–295.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Delpezzo, E.M., & Hoffman, H.S. (1980). Attentional factors in the inhibition of a reflex by a visual prestimulus, Science, 210, 673–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Filion, D.L., Dawson, M.E., & Schell, A.M. (in press). Modification of the acoustic startle-reflex eyeblink: a tool for investigating early and late attentional processes. Biological Psychology.Google Scholar
  14. Filion, D.L., Dawson, M.E., & Schell, AM, (1992). Probing the orienting response with startle modification and secondary reaction time. Submitted to Psychophysiology.Google Scholar
  15. Graham, F.K. (1975). The more or less startling effects of weak prestimulation. Psychophysiology, 12,238–248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Graham, F.K. (1980). Control of reflex blink excitability. In R.F. Thompson, L.H. Hicks, & V.B. Shvyrkov (Eds.), Neural Mechanisms of Goal-Directed Behavior and Learning (pp. 511–519). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  17. Graham, F.K., & Murray, G.M. (1977). Discordant effects of weak prestimulation on magnitude and latency of the reflex blink. Physiological Psychology, 5, 108–114.Google Scholar
  18. Hackley, S.A., & Graham, F.K. (1983). Early selective attention effects on cutaneous and acoustic blink reflexes. Physiological Psychology, 11, 235–242.Google Scholar
  19. Hackley, S.A., & Graham, F.K. (1987). Effects of attending to the spatial position of reflex-eliciting and reflex modulating stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 13, 411–424.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hoffman, H.S., & Ison, J.R. (1980). Reflex modification in the domain of startle: I. Some empirical findings and their implications for how the nervous system processes sensory input. Psychological Review, 87, 175–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Holzman, P.S. (1987). Recent studies of psychophysiology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 13, 49–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and Effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  23. Kerr, B. (1973). Processing demands during mental operations. Memory and Cognition, 1, 401–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leitner, D.S., & Cohen, M.E. (1985). Role of the inferior colliculus in the inhibition of acoustic startle in the rat Physiology and Behavior, 34, 65–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Näätänen, R. (1990). The role of attention in auditory information processing as revealed by event-related potentials and other brain measures of cognitive function. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 13, 201–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nuechterlein, K.N., Dawson, M.E., Gitlin, M., Ventura, J., Goldstein, M.J., Snyder, K., Yee, C., & Mintz, J. (in press). Developmental processes in schizophrenic disorders: The UCLA longitudinal studies of recent-onset schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin.Google Scholar
  27. Öhman, A. (1979). The orienting response, attention, and learning: An information processing perspective. In H.D. Kimmel, E.H. van Olst, & J.F. Orlebeke (Eds.) The Orienting Reflex in Humans (pp. 443–471). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  28. Öhman, A. (1981). ELectrodermal activity and vulnerability to schizophrenia: A review. Biological Psychology, 12, 87–145.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Öhman, A. (1985). Face the beast and fear the face: Animal and social fears as prototypes for evolutionary analyses of emotion. Psychophysiology, 23, 123–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Öhman, A, (1990). Orienting and attention: Preferred preattentive processing of potentially phobic stimuli. In B.A. Campbell (Ed.) Attention and information processing in infants and adults: Perspective s from Human and Animal Research. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  31. Packer, J.S., & Siddle, D.A.T. (1989). Stimulus miscuing, electrodermal activity, and the allocation of processing resources. Psychophysiology, 26, 192–200.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Posner, M.I., & Boies, S J. (1971). Components of attention. Psychological Review, 78, 391–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Siddle, D.A.T., & Packer, J.S. (1987). Stimulus omission and dishabituation of the electrodermal orienting response: The allocation of processing resources. Psychophysiology, 24, 181–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Silverstein, L.D., Graham, F.K., & Bolllin, G. (1981). Selective attention effects on the reflex blink. Psychophysiology, 18, 240–247.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Silverstein, L.D., Graham, F.K., & Calloway, J.M. (1980). Preconditioning and excitability of the human orbicularis oculi reflex as a function of state. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 48, 406–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Spinks, J.A. (1989). The orienting response in anticipation of information processing demands. In N.W. Bond and D.A.T. Siddle (Eds.) Psychophysiology: Issues and Applications (Proceedings of the 24th International Conference of Psychology, Sydney, AU, Vol.6). Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 138–150.Google Scholar
  37. Spohn, H.E., & Patterson, T. (1979). Recent studies of psychophysiology in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 5, 581–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Spitzer, R.L., Endicott, J., & Robins, E. (1978). Research Diagnostic Criteria: Rationale and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35, 773–782.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anne M. Schell
    • 1
  • Michael E. Dawson
    • 2
  • Erin Hazlett
    • 2
  • Diane L. Filion
    • 2
  • Keith H. Nuechterlein
    • 3
  1. 1.Psychology DepartmentOccidental CollegeLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Psychology DepartmentUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Dept. of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral SciencesUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations