Emission of Biogenic Sulfur Gases from Rice Paddies in Japan

  • Katsuyuki Minami
  • Ken-Ichi Kanda
  • Haruo Tsuruta

Abstract

Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from waterlogged paddy soils were studied in the laboratory, in paddy lysimeters, and in a paddy field. The laboratory studies involved measuring the gases produced when each of 5 different paddy soils were treated with 17 sulfur-containing compounds. Emissions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), methylmercaptan (CH3SH), dimethyl sulfide (CH2SCH3 or DMS), carbon disulfide (CS2), and dimethyl disulfide (CH3SSCH3 or DMDS) were detected. Emission rates of DMS from the paddy lysimeter ranged from 4.1 to 7.3 mg S m-2 yr-1. Emissions from lysimeters having a Gray Lowland soil were similar to those from lysimeters having a Light-colored Andosol, but emissions from lysimeters without percolation of water were greater than from lysimeters with water percolating at a rate of 20 mm per day. Annual emissions of DMS ranged from 2.4 to 3.7 mg S m-2 on plots within a paddy field. Diurnal and seasonal patterns of DMS evolution indicate that DMS emissions were greatly influenced by the activity of rice plants. Using our experimental data and the global harvested area of rice fields, we estimate that about 0.004 to 0.01 Tg S are emitted per year from paddy fields in the world.

Keywords

Sulfide Sludge Phytoplankton Cysteine Dimethyl 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Adams, D.F., S.O. Farwell, M.R. Pack, and W. Bawesberger. 1979. Preliminary measurements of biogenic sulfur-containing gas emissions from soils. J. Air Pollut. Contr. Assoc. 29:380–383.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Adams, D.F., S.O. Farwell, M.R. Pack, and E. Robinson. 1981. Biogenic sulfur gas emissions from soils in Eastern and Southeastern United States. J. Air Pollut. Contr. Assoc. 31:1083–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alexander, M. 1977. Introduction to Soil Microbiology, 2nd ed, J. Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Andreae, M.O., and H. Raemdonck. 1983. Dimethyl sulfide in the surface ocean and the marine atmosphere. A global view. Science 221:744–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Andreae, M.O. 1989. The global biogeochemical sulphur cycle. A review. In B. Moore (ed.), Trace Gases and the Biosphere, University of Arizona Press, Tempe.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Aneja, V.P. 1990. Natural sulfur emissions into the atmosphere. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 40:469–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Banwart, W.L., and J.M. Bremner. 1975. Formation of volatile sulfur compounds by microbial decomposition of sulfur-containing amino acids in soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 7:359–364.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bechard, M.J., and W.R. Rayburn. 1979. Volatile organic sulfides from freshwater algae. J. Phycol. 15:379-383. Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Charlson, R.J., J.E. Lovelock, M.O. Andreae, and S.G. Warren. 1987. Oceanic phytoplankton, atmospheric sulfur, cloud albedo and climate. Nature 326:655–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cooper, D.J., W.Z. de Mello, W.J. Cooper, R.G. Zika, E.S. Salzman, J.K. Prospero, and D.L. Savoie. 1987. Short term variability in biogenic sulfur emissions from a Florida Spartina alterniflora marsh. Atmos. Environ. 21:7–12.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cooper, W.J., D.J. Cooper, E.S. Saltzman, W.Z. de Mello, D.L. Savoie, R.G. Zika, and J.M. Prospero. 1987. Emission of biogenic sulphur compounds from several wetland soils in Florida. Atmos. Environ. 21:1491–1495.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Erickson, D.J., S.J. Ghan, and J.E. Penner. 1990. Global ocean-to-atmosphere dimethyl sulfide flux. J. Geophys. Res. 95:7543–7552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fall, R., D.L. Alberitten, F.C. Fehsenfeld, W.C. Kuster, and P.O. Goldan. 1988. Laboratory studies of some environmental variables controlling sulfur emissions from plants. J. Atmos. Chem. 6:341–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goldan, P.D., W.C. Kuster, D.L. Albritton, and F.C. Fehsenfeld. 1987. The measurement of natural sulfur emissions from soils and vegetation: Three sites in the eastern United States revisited. J. Atmos. Chem. 5:439–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kadota, H., and Y. Ishida. 1972. Production of volatile sulfur compounds by microorganisms. Ann. Rev. Microbiol. 26:127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kanda, K., and Minami, K. 1992. Measurement of dimethyl sulfide emission from lysimeter paddy fields. Ecol. Bull. 42.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kanda, K., H. Tsuruta, and K. Minami. 1992. Emission of dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide from paddy fields. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 38:709–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kanda, K., and K. Minami. 1991. Measurement of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) emission from lysimeter paddy fields. Japan. J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 62:35–40 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lamb, B., H. Westberg, G. Allwine, L. Bamesberger, and A. Guenther. 1987. Measurement of biogenic sulfur emissions from soils and vegetation: Application of dynamic enclosure methods with Natusch filter and GC/FPD analysis. J. Atmos. Chem. 5:469–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mactaggart, D.L., D.F. Adams, and S.O. Farwell. 1987. Measurement of biogenic sulfur emissions from soils and vegetation using dynamic enclosure methods: Total sulfur gas emissions via MFC/FD/FPD determinations. J. Atmos. Chem. 5:417–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Minami, K., and S. Fukushi. 1981. Detection of carbonyl sulfide among gases produced by the decomposition of cystine in paddy soils. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 27:105–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Minami, K., and S. Fukushi. 1981. Volatilization of carbonyl sulfide from paddy soils treated with sulfur-containing substances. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 27:339–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Minami, K., and S. Fukushi. 1981. Detection of carbon disulfide among the gases produced by thiosulfate and tetrathionate addition to soils. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 27:541–543. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Minami, K., K. Okayama, and S. Fukushi. 1981. Volatile sulfur compounds evolved from paddy soils treated with organic materials. Japan. J Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 52:375–380 (in Japanese with English summary).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Minami, K. 1982. Volatilization of sulfur from paddy soils. Japan Agricul. Res. Qual. 15:167–171.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Morra, M.J., and W.A. Dick, 1989. Hydrogen sulfide production from cysteine (cystine) in soil. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 53:440–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nriagu, J.O., and D.A. Holdway. 1989. Production and release of dimethyl sulfide from the Great Lakes. Tellus 41:161–169. Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Staubes, R., H.W., Georgii, and G. Ockelmann. 1989. Flux of COS, DMS and CS2 from various soils in Germany. Tellus 41:305–313.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Steudler, P.A., and B.J. Peterson. 1984. Contribution of gaseous sulphur from salt marshes to the global sulphur cycle. Nature 311:455–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Varhelyi, G. 1985. Continental and global sulfur budgets-1. Anthropogenic SO2 emissions. Atmos. Environ. 19:1029–1040.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wainwright, M. 1978. Distribution of sulfur oxidation products in soils and Acer Pseudoplanuts L. growing close to sources of atmosphere. Environ. Pollut. 17: 153–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Watson, R.T., H. Rodhe, H. Oeschger, and U. Siegenthaler. 1990. Greenhouse gases and aerosols. In J.H. Houghton et al., (eds.), Climate Change, the IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Yagi, K., and K. Minami. 1990. Effects of mineral fertilizer and organic matter applications on the emission of methane from some Japanese paddy fields. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 36:599–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Katsuyuki Minami
    • 1
  • Ken-Ichi Kanda
    • 1
  • Haruo Tsuruta
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Environmental ManagementNational Institute of Agro-Environmental SciencesTsukubaJapan

Personalised recommendations