Fresh and chilled foods: meat, poultry, fish, dairy products and eggs

  • Frank A. Paine
  • Heather Y. Paine


The quality of meat is affected by the growth of microorganisms, by enzyme activity and by oxidation. The three kinds of microorganisms involved during meat storage are bacteria, yeasts and moulds, and those normally present on meat cause spoilage which can be smelt and seen. Not all bacteria are harmful but some can cause food poisoning directly (e.g. Salmonella) or indirectly through the toxins they produce (e.g. Staphylococcus). Uncooked meat is an ideal medium for rapid bacterial growth, because it supplies the three necessary factors: moisture, nutrients and an environment which is only slightly acidic (where food is highly acidic, only specialized microorganisms can grow). Enzymes present in the meat bring about chemical changes, only some of which are beneficial. Finally, oxidation of the fat by atmospheric oxygen produces rancidity, which gives the fat an unpleasant flavour.


Shelf Life Food Packaging Modify Atmosphere Packaging Retail Outlet Fresh Fish 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M.E. Ranken, Meat and meat products, Food Industries Manual, 2nd edition, M.E. Ranken (ed.), Blackie, Glasgow (1988).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    H.W. Ockerman, Chemistry of meat tissue, USDA Training Course for Processed Food Inspectors, Ohio State University (1970).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C.F. Niven, Influence of microbes upon the colour of meat, Am. Meat Inst. Bull. 13(1951).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    W.C. Frazier, Food Microbiology, 2nd edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi (1967), Chap. 16.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Cuthbertson, Progress in meat handling and meat quality, in Food Technology International Europe (1987), p. 92.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. Bentley, Dressing upside down, down under, Food Sci. Technol. Today 5(2) (1991), 111.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Taylor Centralised packaging of fresh meat, in Food Technology International Europe (1989), p. 379.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    A.A. Brody, Controlled atmosphere packaging for chilled foods, in Food Technology International Europe (1990), p. 310.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Inns, Modified atmosphere packaging, in Modern Process, Packaging and Distribution Systems for Food, F.A. Paine (ed.), Blackie, Glasgow (1987).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A.A. Brody, Controlled atmosphere packaging, in The Wiley Encyclopaedia of Packaging Technology, Wiley, New York (1986), p. 219.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.P. Smith, H.S. Ramaswamy and B.K. Simpson, Developments in food packaging technology, Part 2, Trends Food Sci. Technol. November (1990), 107.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M.J. Urch, Fish and fish products, in Food Industries Manual, 2nd edition, M.E. Ranken (ed.), Blackie, Glasgow (1988).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K.J. Whittle, Current developments in fish processing, in Food Technology International Europe (1988), p. 137.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    P.R. Sheard, A Guide to the British Food Manufacturing Industry, 3rd edition, Nova Press, London (1991).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M.S. Schotland, Fish packaging and marketing in the UK, paper presented at the 4th Int. Conf. on Controlled Modified Atmosphere Vacuum Packaging, New York, Business Research (1988), pp. 31–42.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    E.S. Garrett, Packaged seafood and safety, paper presented at Packaging Conference Inc. on Food Safety Packaging, Chicago (1989), 13 pp.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sea Fish Industry Authority, Guidelines for the Handling of Fish Packed in a Controlled Atmosphere, Sea Fishery House, Edinburgh (1985).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anon, Will it swim in California? Packaging Dig. 26(5) (1989), 53, 56, 60.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    K.J. Burgess, Dairy products, in Food Industries Manual, 2nd edition, M.E. Ranken (ed.), Blackie, Glasgow (1988).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    National Dairy Council, The Quality of Milk (1982).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    W.C. Frazier, Food Microbiology, 2nd edition, Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi (1967), Chap. 3.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Anon, Associated’s 2 pint glass bottle tackles plastic container, Milk Ind. 91(12) (1989).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Anon, Innovation in milk packaging, Austr. Packag. 37(9) (1989) 28.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Anon, Dairy heard, Packaging Today 11 (1989) 9.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Anon, Protecting milk from light, Verpack Derat. 1 (1989), 23–28.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. Stehle, Trends in packaging techniques for milk products and fruit, Neue Verpack 41(10) (1988), 56, 60–61.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Anon, Milk bottles milk bottles for the sake of the environment, Austropack 6 (1989), 163.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    R.N. Hassen, A dressing down of the bottle freaks, North Eur. Food Dairy J. 55(4–5) (1989), 81.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Anon, North Eur. Food Dairy J. 55 (4–5) (1989), 82.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Anon, The environment: How green is milk packaging? Milk Ind. 93(2) (1990), 26, 27, 30–33.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. Hilliam, The European Dairy Industry, Leatherhead Food Research Association (1990).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    C.R. Oswin and L. Preston, Protective Wrappings, Cann Publications. London, (1980), p. 41.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Anon, Nov 1988 Danish company uses butter in a box for competitive strategy, Food Eng. Int. 13(11) (1988), 15.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Anon, Brand concepts for eggs—environmental aspects of egg box production, Pack. Rep. 12 (1989), 18.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    EC Directive on health problems relating to minced meat and similar products: import from Third World Countries—D88 1657, Official J. Eur. Community L382 (1988).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    EC Directive on Int. EC trade in fresh meat (health problems)—D72/461 and D72/462 and Modif D87/64, Official J. Eur. Community L34 (1987).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    EC Directive on health problems affecting intercommunity trade in fresh meat—D88/288, Official J. Eur. Community L124 (1988).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    EC Directive on Health and hygiene conditions for production and trade in game, meat products and preparations, in press.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    EC Directive on health conditions for animal food products not covered by existing legislation: eggs—D89/437, Official J. Eur. Community L212 (1987).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Food Hygiene (Amendment) Regulations UK, SI 1431, HMSO, London (1990).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Chilled Food Association, Guidelines for Good Hygiene Practice in the Manufacture of Chilled Foods, Edinburgh (1989).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    National Cold Storage Federation, Guidelines for the Handling and Distribution of Chilled Foods, London (1989).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    The Retail Consortium, Guidelines for Retail Operators, London (1989).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Int. Inst, of Refrigeration, Recommendations for Chilled Storage of Perishable Produce (1979).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Department of Trade, A Guide to the International Carriage of Perishable Foodstuffs, HMSO, London (1988).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Department of Health, Guidelines on Cook Chill and Cook Freeze Catering Systems, HMSO, London (1989).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Institute of Food Science and Technology, Food and Drink Manufacture Good Manufacturing Practice: A Guide to its Responsible Management, 3rd edition, IFST, London (1991).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Institute of Food Science and Technology, Guidelines for the Handling of Chilled Foods, 2nd revision, IFST, London (1990).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    F.P. Coyne, Effect of carbon dioxide on bacterial growth with special reference to presentation of fish. Part II. Gas storage of fresh fish, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 52 (1933), 19T.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    J.H. Hotchkiss, Microbiological hazards of CAP/MAP food packaging, in Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on CAP/MAP/Vacuum Packaging—CAP 87, Ithaca IL (1987).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank A. Paine
    • 1
    • 2
  • Heather Y. Paine
  1. 1.International Association of Packaging Research InstitutesBelgium
  2. 2.School of PackagingMichigan State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations