Advertisement

Some Historical Perspectives on Early Pulse Coded Neural Network Circuits

  • Robert W. Newcomb
Part of the The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 266)

Abstract

From the beginnings of mankind the means of brain activity must have fascinated man. And although Galvani had shown in the late 1700s that muscles were excited by electrical activity of the nerves [Galvani 1791, Brazier 61] it was not known through most of the 1800’s what was the basis for activity of the brain — indeed it is still unknown how a person thinks. In any event the publication by the Polish neurophysiologist Adolf Beck in the Centralblatt für Physiologie [Beck 1890], concerning his measurements of electrical activity in the brain [Beck 1888], caused considerable controversy as to whom was the first one to achieve such an accomplishment. After almost all sides were heard from, the controversy was settled by a further letter to the Centralblatt by Richard Caton calling attention to the measurements he had reported to the August 24, 1875, meeting of the British Medical Association and recorded in the report of the meeting [Caton 1875]. Among statements in Caton’s original report is the following: “When any part of the grey matter is in a state of functional activity, its electric current usually exhibits negative variation” [Brazier 61] where by “negative variation” at the time was meant action potentials. Thus, we see that measurements were made on the pulse coded electrical activity in the brain as early as 1875.

Keywords

Neuron Model Negative Variation Electrical Theory Impulse Propagation Nerve Axon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [Beck 1888]
    A. Beck, “O pobudliwosci roznych miejsc tego samego nerwu,” Rozprawy Wydzsal matematyczno-przyrodniczy Polska Akademja Umiejelnosci. Vol. 15, 1888, pp. 165–195 (cited in [Brazier 61, p. 49]).Google Scholar
  2. [Beck 1890]
    A. Beck, “Die Bestimmung der Localisation der Gehirn-und Rückenmarkfunctionen vermittelst der electrischen Ersheinungen,” Centralblatt für Physiologie, Vol. 4, 1890, pp. 473–476 (cited in [Brazier 61, p. 49]).Google Scholar
  3. [Bray 61]
    T.E. Bray, “An Optoelectronic-Magnetic Neuron Component,” Proceedings of the National Electronics Conference, Chicago, IL, Vol. 17, October 1961, pp. 322–326.Google Scholar
  4. [Brazier 61]
    M.A.B. Brazier, “A History of the Electrical Activity of the Brain — The First Half-Century,” Pitman Medical Publishing Co„ Ltd., London, 1961.Google Scholar
  5. [Caton 1875]
    R. Caton, “The Electric Currents of the Brain,”British Medical JournalVol. 2, 1875, p. 278 (cited in [Brazier 61, p. 25])Google Scholar
  6. [Crane 60]
    H. D. Crane, “Neuristor Studies,” Technical Report No. 1506–2, Stanford Electronics Laboratory, July 11, 1960.Google Scholar
  7. [Crane 62]
    H. D. Crane, “Neuristor — A Novel Device and System Concept,”Proceedings of the IREVol. 50, No. 10, October, 1962, pp. 2048–2060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [Cote 61]
    A. J. Cote, Jr., “A Neuristor Prototype,”Proceedings of the IREVol. 49, No. 9, September 1961, pp. 1430–1431.Google Scholar
  9. [Czarnul 76]
    C. Czarnul, M. Bialko, and R. W. Newcomb, “NeuristorLine Pulse-Train Selector,”Electronics LettersVol. 12, No. 8, April 15, 1976, pp 207–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [Eccles 57]
    J. C. Eccles, “The Physiology of Nerve Cells,” The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1957.Google Scholar
  11. [Galvani 1791]
    L. Galvani, “De Viribus Electricitatis in Motu Muscu-lari,”CommentariusBolgna, 1791 (cited in [Brazier 61,p. 2]).Google Scholar
  12. [Harmon 59]
    L. D. Harmon, Artificial NeuronScienceVol. 129, No. 3354, April 10, 1959, pp. 962–963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [Hodgkin 52]
    A. L. Hodgkin and A. F. Huxley, “A Quatitative Description of Membrane Current and Its application to Conduction and Excitation in Nerve,”The Journal of PhysiologyVol 117, No. 4, August 28, 1952, pp. 500–544.Google Scholar
  14. [Jenik 62]
    F. Jenik, “Electronic Neuron Models as an Aid to Neurophysiological Research, ”Ergebnisse der Biologie.Vol. 25, 1962, pp. 206–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [Jenik 64]
    F. Jenik, “Pulse Processing by Neuron Models,” in “Neu-ral Theory and Modeling” edited by R. F. Reiss, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 1964, pp. 190–212.Google Scholar
  16. [Kulkarni-Kohli 76]
    C. Kulkarni-Kohli and R. W. Newcomb, “An Integrable MOS Neuristor Line,”Proceedings of the IEEEVol. 65, No. 11, November 1976, pp. 1630–1632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [Lewis 64]
    E. R. Lewis, “An Electronic Model of the Neuron Based on the Dynamics of Potassium and Sodium Ion Fluxes, ” inNeural Theory and ModelingR. F. Reiss, Ed., Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA, 1964, pp. 154–189.Google Scholar
  18. [MacGregor 77]
    R. J. MacGregor and E. R. Lewis, “Neural Modeling,” Plenum Press, New York, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [Martin 61]
    T. B. Martin, “Analog Signal Processing by Neural Net-works,” Proceedings of the National Electronics Conference, Chicago, IL Vol. 17, October 1961, pp. 317–321.Google Scholar
  20. [McGrogan 61]
    E. P. McGrogan, “Improved Transistor Neuron Model-s,”Proceedings of the National Electronics Conference, Chicago, Vol. 17, October 1961, pp. 302–310.Google Scholar
  21. [Millman 79]
    J. Millman, “Microelectronics,” McGraw-Hill book Co., New York, 1979.Google Scholar
  22. [Nagumo 62]
    J. Nagumo, S. Arimoto, and S. Yoshizawa, “An Active Pulse Transmission Line Simulating Nerve Axon,”Proceedings of the IREVol. 50, No. 10, October, 1962, pp. 2061–2070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [Newcomb 79]
    R. W. Newcomb, “MOS Neuristor Lines,” in “Construc-tive Approaches to Mathematical Models,” Coffman & Fix, Editors, Academic Press, 1979, pp. 87–111.Google Scholar
  24. [Pellionisz 79]
    A. Pellionisz, “Modeling of Neurons and Neuronal Net-works,” in The Neurosciences, Fourth Study Program, edited by F. O. Schmitt and F. G. Worden, The MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1979, pp. 525–546. 8Google Scholar
  25. [Putzrath 61]
    E L. Putzrath and T. M. Martin, “Speech Recognition by Neural Networks,” Proceedings of the National Electronics Conference, Chicago, IL Vol. 17, October 1961, pp. 311–316.Google Scholar
  26. [Schmitt 37a]
    O. H. Schmitt, “Mechanical Solution of the Equations of Nerve Impulse Propagation,” abstract of a demonstration in the Proceedings of the American Physiological Society Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting, Memphis, TN, April, 1937The American Journal of PhysiologyVol. 119, No. 2, June 1, 1937, pp. 399–400.Google Scholar
  27. [Schmitt 37b]
    O. H. Schmitt, “An Electrical Theory of Nerve Impulse Propagation,” abstract in the Proceedings of the American Physiological Society Forty-Ninth Annual Meeting, Memphis TN, April, 1937The American Journal of PhysiologyVol. 119, No. 2, June 1, 1937, p. 399.Google Scholar
  28. [Schmitt 38]
    O. H. Schmitt, “A Thermionic Trigger,”Journal of Scientific InstrumentsVol 15, No. 1, January, 1938, pp. 24–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [Wilamowski 75]
    B. M. Wilamowski, C. Czarnul, and M. B. Bialko, “Novel Inductorless neuristor Line,”Electronics LettersVol. 11, No. 15, July 24, 1975, pp. 355–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert W. Newcomb
    • 1
  1. 1.Electrical Engineering DepartmentUniversity of MarylandUSA

Personalised recommendations