Clinical Evaluation of Beta-Blockers in Various Forms of Angina Pectoris
Beta-receptor blockers have been used in ischemic heart disease, especially in angina pectoris, since the late 1960s. Their evaluation has considered clinical findings, including symptoms, ischemic endpoints (such as myocardial infarction), and the need for revascularization, as well as investigative measures, such as signs of ischemia at exercise testing and during long-term ECG recording. It has been clearly shown that beta-blockers have beneficial effects on anginal symptoms and the signs of myocardial ischemia. However, whether there really is a primary preventive effect in patients with stable angina (as has been shown for post-MI patients) has not been studied. This chapter discusses the various mechanisms behind the beneficial effects of betablockers that may also influence prognosis, as well as some methodological problems related to clinical trials with beta-blockers.
KeywordsCholesterol Fatigue Ischemia Pyridine Prostaglandin
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