Global Models of the Expanding Earth

  • Klaus Vogel


The theory of Earth expansion starts from the assumption that “Pangaea” covered completely the’ surface of an earth with approximately 55 % – 60 % of the present diameter. By growing volume of the earth due to endogenic processes this continental crust broke to pieces and the widening gaps developed to the oceans of today according to the pattern of seafloor spreading.

With the help of several global models a reconstruction of this small earth is presented. Globes with growing diameters are enclosed within transparent spheres of the modern earth (globe-in-globe model) to compare the starting positions with the present situation. In generat the continents are fixed at the extensible substratum, maintaining their positions to each other. The movements are mainly determined by radial outward pressing of the continents.

Finally this process is shown at geological globes (diameters 85 cm and 54 cm) with more accuracy and clearness.


Continental Crust Seafloor Spreading Continental Drift Mountain Building Earth Expansion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Carey, S.W., 1976, “The Expanding Earth.” Development in Geotectonics 10, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1–488.Google Scholar
  2. Carey, S.W., 1988,“Theories of the Earth and Universe” Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, 1–413.Google Scholar
  3. Egyed, L., 1957, A new dynamic conception of the internal constitution of the earth, Geologische Rundschau, 46, 101–121.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Gottfried, R., 1990, Origin and evulution of the earth, chemical and phys. verifcations. in “Critical Aspects of Plate Tect. Theory II,” Theophrsatus Publ. Athens, 115–140.Google Scholar
  5. Hunt, C.W., Ed., 1992, “Expanding Geospheres.” Polar Publishing, Calgary.Google Scholar
  6. Jordan, P., 1966,“Die Expansion der Erde”, Verl. Viehweg & Sohn, Braunschweig 1–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Keindl, J., 1940, “Dehnt sich die Erde aus?” Herold-Verlag München Solln 1–50.Google Scholar
  8. Koziar, J.,1991, Studies on the problems of the earth expans. carried in the Wroclaw-centre, Acta Univ. Wrocl., 1375, 1–14.Google Scholar
  9. Kremp, G.O.W., 1991, Paleogeography of the last two cycles of earth expansion, in “Current prespectives in palvnolosical research”, Journ. of Palynol. New-Delhi 231–260.Google Scholar
  10. Kairemp, G.O.W., 1992, Earth expansion theory versum statical earth assumption, in Chatterjee, S.; Hotton, N. III, eds., “New Concepts in Global Tectonics.” Texas Tech. University Press, Lubbock, 279–307.Google Scholar
  11. Lindemann, B., 1927, “Kettengebirge, kontinentale Zerspaltung und Erdexpansion” Fischer-Verlag Jena, 1–183.Google Scholar
  12. Mouritsen, S.A. 1975, Introduction of planetary structure and terrestrial maria, Geologische Rundschau Bd.64 Heft 3, 899–915.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Owen, H.G. 1983, “Atlas of Continental Displacement, 200 mill years to present” Cambridge Univ. Press 1–160.Google Scholar
  14. Pfeufer, J., 1981, “Die Gebirssbildunesprozesse als Folge der Expansion der Erde ” Glückauf Verl. Essen 1–128.Google Scholar
  15. Pfeufer, J. 1992, Zur Hvpothese der Expansion der Erde, Z. geol. Wiss., 20 (5/5), Berlin, December 1992, 527–546.Google Scholar
  16. Scalera, G. 1990, General glues favouring expanding earth theory, in: “Critical Aspects of the Plate Tectonics Theory”, Theophrastus publ. Athens vol.2, 65–93.Google Scholar
  17. Strutinski, C., 1990, Tthe importance of transcurrence phenomena in mountain building in “Critical Aspects of the Plate Tectonics Theorv,” Theophrastus publ. Athens, vol.2, 141–166.Google Scholar
  18. Vogel, K., 1983, Global models and earth expansion, in:S.W. Carey, ed., “The Expansion of the Earth-a Symposium”, Sydney 17–27.Google Scholar
  19. Vogel, K, Schwab, M. 1983, The position of Madagascar in Pangaea in: S.W. Carey (Ed.) “ The Expanding Earth-a Symposium,” Sydney, 73–76.Google Scholar
  20. Vogel, K., 1984, Beiträge zur Frage der Expansion der Erde auf der Grundlage von Globenmodellen, z.geol.Wiss. Berlin 12, 563–577.Google Scholar
  21. Vogel, K., 1989. Recent crustal movements in the light of earth expansion theory, in:“Geodesy and Physics of the Earth” (Symposium), Veröffentl. Zentralinst. Phvsik der Erde Nr. 102. III: Potsdam, 284–288.ADSGoogle Scholar
  22. VogeL, K., 1990, The expansion of the earth-an alternative model to the plate tectonics theory, in “Critical Aspects”, Theophrastus publications Athens, vol.2, 19–34.Google Scholar
  23. Wegener, A., 1929, “Die Entstehung der Kontinente und Ozeane”, 4.Aufl.,Verl. Viehweg& Sohn Braunschweig. 1–231.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus Vogel
    • 1
  1. 1.WerdauGermany

Personalised recommendations