Urolithiasis 2 pp 151-153 | Cite as

Crystal Growth and Nucleation Rates for Calcium Oxalate in 92% Fresh Urine in a Continuous Crystalliser

  • J. P. Kavanagh
  • N. J. Blacklock
  • S. Nishio
  • J. Garside


Mixed suspension, mixed product removal (MSMPR) continuous crystallisation has been applied in many studies of calcium oxalate crystallisation. It is particularly appropriate for urolithiasis research, as Finlayson has shown that crystallisation within the urinary tract can be modelled effectively by a series of MSMPR continuous crystallisers1. The MSMPR method gives a better representation of the renal environment than others because it reaches a steady state with a constant supersaturation and operates with continuous flow. As a result, individual crystals only remain in the suspension for a relatively short time, not much different from transit times through the kidney. Another advantage of the MSMPR technique is that nucleation and growth rates can be measured simultaneously, but independently, in units of no/min/mL and μm/min.


Nucleation Rate Calcium Oxalate Calcium Oxalate Stone High Supersaturation Sodium Oxalate 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. Kavanagh
    • 2
  • N. J. Blacklock
    • 2
  • S. Nishio
    • 2
  • J. Garside
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemical EngineeringUMISTManchesterUK
  2. 2.Department of UrologyUniversity Hospital of SouthManchesterUK

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