Metabolic Abnormalities in Patients With Renal Staghorn Stones
Renal calculi can be considered a cause or an effect of renal infection; the latter role produces the so-called staghorn type stone, with characteristic chemical composition (struvite and other related phosphates). Its cause is the enzymatic alkalinization of urine by urease-producing bacteria2. The infection-mediated stone grows very fast (sometimes called “stone cancer”). In the case of renal infection being caused by renal calculi the stones are of mixed composition and associated with metabolic disturbances.