Macrolevel: The Region
We have examined site- and neighborhood-level antecedents and correlates of crime and aggression and, in both instances, found not insignificant locational contributions to such behaviors. The present chapter extends this inquiry to larger geographic areas: cities, counties, states, regions, and entire nations. This broader level of inquiry, the largest portion of which has been regional, has its roots in the “cartographic” or “geographic” school of criminology, which began first in France, and then in Belgium, the Netherlands, and England, in the early 1800s.
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