The generic term diode will in this chapter be used for all non-linear two-terminal devices, i.e. not only asymmetric structures such as p-n junctions but also symmetric ones such as Gunn (n+-n-n+ or Baritt (p+-n-p+) diodes. Many different types of diodes exist nowadays which have all kinds of applications in microwave technology. They can be classified in various ways. According to application we can divide them into three main groups: frequency conversion, frequency or amplitude control and signal generation. According to their microwave impedance we can distinguish between passive and active devices, referring to the real part of the impedance being positive and negative, respectively. It so happens that both classifications almost coincide in the sense that passive diodes are used for frequency conversion and control and active diodes for signal generation. In the following we will discuss the many physical diode structures that exist nowadays. Applications will be discussed in Chapters 8, 9 and 10.
KeywordsDepletion Layer Schottky Diode Tunnel Diode Drift Region Josephson Current
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