Advertisement

Pneumocystis carinii and Parasitic Infections in the Immunocompromised Host

  • Jay Alan Fishman

Abstract

International travel and shifting patterns of immigration have increased the importance of awareness of the major clinical syndromes associated with infections due to parasites. In the immunocompromised individual, life-threatening infection may emerge decades after a forgotten exposure in an endemic area. Most clinicians have some familiarity with the major clinical syndromes associated with malaria, Chagas’ disease, giardiasis, amebiasis, or the helminthic diseases. The spectrum of immune deficits is almost as broad as the tens of thousands of species of parasites to which humans are exposed. However, prior to the recognition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), important parasites in the immunocompromised host were largely limited to infections with Toxoplasma gondii, Pneumocystis carinii, Strongyloides stercoralis, and occasionally babesiosis or malaria related to transfusions in splenectomized patients. Many new human parasites, both pathogens and nonpathogens of the normal host, must now be added to this list [see Table 1 (Section 1.2)]. The presence, progression, and manifestations of some parasitic diseases are altered by immune compromise. These organisms provide the focus of this discussion.

Keywords

Visceral Leishmaniasis Acquire Immunodeficiency Syndrome Tissue Cyst Ocular Toxoplasmosis Amebic Liver Abscess 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Joiner K, Sher A, Gaither T, et al: Evasion of alternative complement pathway of Trypanosoma cruzi results from inefficient binding of factor B. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 6593–6597, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ruppel A, McLaren DJ, Diesfield HJ, et al: Schistosoma mansoni: Escape from complement-mediated parasiticidal mechanisms following percutaneous primary infection. Eur J Immunol 14: 702–708, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sher A, Hieny S, Joiner K: Evasion of the alternative complement pathway by metacyclic trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi: Dependence on the developmentally regulated synthesis of surface proteins and N-linked carbohydrate. J Immunol 137: 2961–2967, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Piessens WF, Partono F, Hoffmann SL, et al: Antigen-specific suppressor T-lymphocytes in human lymphatic filariasis. N Engl J Med 307: 144–148, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lucas SB: Missing infections in AIDS. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84: 34–38, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Greenson JK, Belitsos PC, Yardley JH, et al: AIDS enteropathy: Occult enteric infections and duodenal mucosal alterations in chronic diarrhea. Ann Intern Med 114: 366–372, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Smith PD, Quinn TC, Strober W, et al: Gastrointestinal infections in AIDS. Ann Intern Med 116: 63–77, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vanek J, Jirovec O: Parasitare Pneumonie, “Interstitielle” Plasmazeil Pneumonie der Frühgeburten verursachte durch Pneumocystis carinii. Zentralbl Bakteriol 158: 120–127, 1952.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dutz W: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Pathol Annu 5: 309–341, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gajdusek DC: Pneumocystis carinii—etiologic agent of interstitial plasma cell pneumonia of young and premature infants. Pediatrics 19: 543–545, 1957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Perera DR, Western KA, Johnson HD, et al: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a hospital for children, JAMA 214: 1074–1078, 1970.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Robbins JB, DeVita VT, Dutz W: Symposium on Pneumocystis carinii infection. NCI Monograph No 43, National Cancer Institute, Washington, DC, 1976.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stagno S, Pifer LL, Hughes WT, et al: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in young immunocompetent infants. Pediatrics 66: 56–62, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Van Der Meer G, Brug SL: Infection par Pneumocystis chez l’homme et chez les animaux. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop 22: 301–307, 1942.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Walzer PD, Shultz MG, Western KA: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and primary immune deficiency disease of infancy and childhood. J Pediatr 82: 416–422, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Watanabe JM, Chinchinian H, Weitz C, et al: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in a family. JAMA 193: 119–120, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Redman JC: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in an adopted Vietnamese infant. JAMA 230: 1561–1563, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Walzer PD, Perl DP, Krogstad DJ, et al: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the United States: Epidemiologic, diagnostic, and clinical features. Ann Intern Med 80: 83–93, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dutz W, Post C, Jennings-Khodadad E, et al: Therapy and prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii. In Robbins JB, DeVita VT Jr, Dutz W (eds): Symposium on Pneumocystis carinii Infection: NCI Monograph 43. National Cancer Institute, Washington, DC, 1976, pp. 179–185.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Brazinsky JH, Phillips JE: Pneumocystis pneumonia transmission between patients with lymphoma. JAMA 209: 1527, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ruebush TK II, Weinstein RA, Baehner RL, et al: An outbreak of Pneumocystis pneumonia in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Am J Dis Child 132: 143–148, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Singer C, Armstrong D, Rosen PP, et al: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: A cluster of eleven cases, Ann Intern Med 82: 772–777, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Walzer PD, Perl DP, Krogstad DJ, et al: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the United States: Epidemologic, diagnostic and clinical features. In Robbins JB, DeVita VT Jr, Dutz W (eds): Symposium on Pneumocystis carinii Infection: NCI Monograph 43. National Cancer Institute, Washington, DC, 1976, pp. 55–63.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Winston DJ, Gale RP, Meyer DV, et al: Infectious complications of human bone marrow transplantation. Medicine (Baltimore) 58: 1–31, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Walzer PD: Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fishman JA: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In Fishman AP (ed): Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992, pp. 263–286.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gottlieb MS, Schroff R, Shander HM: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and mucosal candidiasis in previously healthy homosexual men: Evidence of a new acquired cellular immunodeficiency, N Engl J Med 305: 1425–1431, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Moskowitz LB, Kory P, Chan JC, et al: Unusual causes of death in Haitians residing in Miami: High prevalence of opportunistic infections, JAMA 250: 1187–1191, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Murray JF, Felton CP, Garay SM, et al: Pulmonary complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 310: 1682–1688, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zakowski PC, Gottlieb MS, Groopman J: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Kaposi’s sarcoma, and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In Young LS (ed): Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1984, pp. 195–226.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lundgren B, Cotton R, Lundgren JD, et al: Identification of Pneumocystis carinii chromosomes and mapping of five genes. Infect Immun 58: 1705–1710, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Edman JC, Kovacs JA, Masur H, et al: Ribosomal RNA sequence shows Pneumocystis carinii to be a member of the fungi. Nature (London) 334: 519–522, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sogin ML, Edman JC: A self-splicing intron in the small subunit rRNA gene of Pneumocystis carinii. Nucleic Acids Res 17: 5349–5359, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stringer SL, Stringer JR, Blase MA, et al: Pneumocystis carinii: Sequence from ribosomal RNA implies a close relationship with fungi. Exp Parasitol 68: 450–461, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Edman JC, Edman U, Cao M, et al: Isolation and expression of the Pneumocystis carinii dihydrofolate reductase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 8625–8629, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Edman U, Edman JC, Lundren B, et al: Isolation and expression of the Pneumocystis carinii thymidylate synthase gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 6503–6507, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Smith JW, Bartlett MS: Diagnosis of Pneumocystis pneumonia. Lab Med 10: 430–435, 1979.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Campbell WG: Ultrastructure of Pneumocystis in human lung. Arch Pathol Lab Med 93: 312–324, 1972.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Vossen MEMH, Beckers PJA, Meuwissen JHETL, et al: Developmental biology of Pneumocystis carinii: An alternative view on the life cycle of the parasite. Z Parasitenkd 55: 101–118, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hughes WT: Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonitis. CRC Press, New York, 1987.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pifer LL, Hughes WT, Murphy MJ: Propagation of Pneumocystis carinii in vitro. Pediatr Res 11: 305–316, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cushion MT: In vitro studies of Pneumocystis carinii. J Protozool 36: 45–52S, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smith JW, Bartlett MS, Queener SF: In vitro cultivation of Pneumocystis. Development of models and their use to discover new drugs for therapy and prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Walzer PD (ed): In Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994, pp. 487–510.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Walzer PD, Schnelle V, Armstrong D, et al: A new experimental model for Pneumocystis carinii infection. Science 197: 177–179, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Latorre CR, Sulzer AJ, Norman LG: Serial propagation of Pneumocystis carinii in cell line cultures. Appl Env Microbiol 33: 1204–1206, 1977.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Murphy MJ, Pifer LL, Hughes WT: Pneumocystis carinii in vitro. Am J Pathol 86: 387, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Hughes WT, Bartley DL, Smith BM: A natural source of infection due to Pneumocystis carinii. J Infect Dis 147: 595, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Veda K, Goto Y, Yamazaki S, et al: Chronic fatal pneumocystosis in nude mice. Jpn J Exp Med 47: 475–482, 1977.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Frenkel JK: Pneumocystis jiroveci n. sp. In Devita VT Jr, Dutz W, Robbins JB, (eds): Symposium on Pneumocystis carinii Infection: NCI Monograph 43. National Cancer Institute, Washington, DC, 1976, pp. 13–30.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Frenkel JK, Good JT, Shultz JA: Latent Pneumocystis infection of rats: Relapse and chemotherapy. Lab Invest 15: 1559–1577, 1966.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hendley JO, Weller TH: Activation and transmission in rats of infection with Pneumocystis. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 137: 1401–1404, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Bartlett MS, Fishman JA, Durkin MM, et al: Pneumocystis carinii: Improved models to study efficacy of drugs for treatment or prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in the rat (Rattus spp.). Exp Parasitol 70: 100–106, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shellito J, Suzara W, Blumenfeld W, et al: A new model of Pneumocystis carinii infection in mice selectively depleted of help of T Lymphocytes. J Clin Invest 85: 1686–1693, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Harmsen AG, Stankiewicz M: Requirement for CD4+ cells in resistance to Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in mice. J Exp Med 172: 937–946, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Furuta T, Veda K, Fujiwara K, et al: Cellular and humoral immune response of mice subclinically infected with Pneumocystis carinii. Infect Immun 47: 544–548, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Furuta TK, Ueda K, Fujiwara K: Effect of T-cell transfer on Pneumocystis carinii infection in nude mice. Jpn J Exp Med 54: 57–64, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Beck JM, Liggitt HD, Brunette EN, et al: Reduction in intensity of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in mice by aerosol administration of gamma interferon. Infect Immun 59: 3859–3862, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Murray HW, Gellene RA, Libby DM: Activation of tissue macrophages from AIDS patients: In vitro response of AIDS alveolar macrophages to lymphokines and interferon-gamma. J Immunol 135: 2374–2377, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brzosko WJ, Nowoslawski A: Identification of Pneumocystis carinii antigens in tissues. Bull Acad Pol Sci 13: 49–54, 1965.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Graves DC: Immunologic studies of Pneumocystis carinii. J Protozool 36: 60–69, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Fishman JA: New approaches to the diagnosis and management of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. Med Times, 1989, pp. 21-34.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hughes WT: Recent advances in serodiagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii. Chest 89: 764–765, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fisher DJ, Gigliotti F, Zauderer M, et al: Specific T-cell response to a Pneumocystis carinii surface glycoprotein (gp120) after immunization and natural infection. Infect Immun 59: 3372–3376, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Giggliotti F, Hughes WT: Passive immunoprophylaxis with specific monoclonal antibody confers partial protection against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in animal models. J Clin Invest 81: 1666–1668, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Herrod HG, Valenski WR, Woods DR, et al: The in vitro response of human lymphocytes to Pneumocystis carinii antigen. J Immunol 126: 59–61, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hagler DN, Deepe GS, Pogue CL, et al: Blastogenic responses to Pneumocystis carinii among patients with human immunodeficiency (HIV) infection. Clin Exp Immunol 74: 7–13, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Masur H, Jones TC: The interaction in vitro of Pneumocystis carinii with macrophages and L-cells. J Exp Med 147: 157–170, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hughes WT, Feldman S, Aur RJA, et al: Intensity of immunosupressive therapy and the incidence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. Cancer 36: 2004–2009, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Masur H, Ognibene FP, Yarchoan R, et al: CD4 counts as predictors of opportunistic pneumonias in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Ann Intern Med 111: 223–231, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hughes WT, Johnson WW: Recurrent Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia following apparent recovery. J. Pediatr 79: 755–759, 1971.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Hughes WT, Price RA, Sisko F, et al: Protein calorie malnutrition: A host determinant for Pneumocystis carinii infection. Am J Dis Child 128: 44–550, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Hughes WT, Sanyal SK, Price RA: Signs, symptoms and pathophysiology of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. In Robbins JB, DeVita VT Jr, Dutz W (eds): Symposium on Pneumocystis carinii Infection: NCI Monograph. National Cancer Institute, Washington, DC, 1976, pp. 77–88.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jacobson MA, Mills J: Serious cytomegalovirus disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): Clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment. Ann Intern Med 108: 585–594, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Wang NS, Huang SN, Thurlbeck WM: Combined Pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus infection. Arch Pathol Lab Med 90: 529–535, 1970.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bozzette SA, Arcia J, Bartok AE, et al: Impact of Pneumocystis carinii and cytomegalovirus on the course and outcome of atypical pneumonia in advanced human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Infect Dis 165: 93–98, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Lyons HA, Vinijchaikul K, Hennigar GR: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia unassociated with other disease. Arch Intern Med 108: 173–180, 1961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Meuwissen JHET, Leeuwenberg ADEM: A microcomplement fixation test applied to infection with Pneumocystis carinii. Trop Geogr Med 24: 282–291, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Meyer JD, Pifer LL, Sale GE, et al: The value of Pneumocystis carinii antibody and antigen detection for diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after marrow transplantation. Am Rev Respir Dis 120: 181–182, 1979.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Meuwissen JHET, Tauber I, Leeuwenberg ADEM, et al: Parasitologic and serologic observations of infection with Pneumocystis in humans. J Infect Dis 136: 43–49, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Norman L, Kagan IG: Some observations on the serology of Pneumocystis carinii infections in the United States. Infect Immunol 8: 317–321, 1973.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Pifer LL: Serodiagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii. Chest 87: 698–700, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kovacs JA, Hiemenz JW, Macher AM, et al: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: A comparison between patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and patients with other immunodeficiencies. Ann Intern Med 100: 663–671, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kwok S, O’Donnell JJ, Wood IS: Retinal cotton-wool spots in a patient with Pneumocystis carinii infection. N Engl J Med 307: 184–185, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Scott GB, Hutto C, Makuch RW, et al: Survival in children with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. N Engl J Med 321: 1791–1976, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sirotzky L, Memoli V, Roberts JL, et al: Recurrent Pneumocystis pneumonia with normal chest roentgenograms. JAMA 240: 1513–1515, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Turbiner EH, Yeh SDJ, Rosen PP, et al: Abnormal gallium scintigraphy in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with a normal chest radiography. Radiology 127: 437–438, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Goodell B, Jacobs JB, Powell RD, et al: Pneumocystis carinii: The spectrum of diffuse interstitial pneumonia in patients with neoplastic disease. Ann Intern Med 72: 337–340, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Doppman JL, Geelhoed GW: Atypical radiographic features in Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In Dutz W, Robbins JB, DeVita VT Jr, (eds): Symposium on Pneumocystis carinii Infection: NCI Monograph 43. National Cancer Institute, Washington, DC, 1976, pp. 89–97.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Cross AS, Steigbigel RT: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia presenting as localized nodular densities. N Engl J Med 291: 831–832, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Luddy RE, Champion LAA, Schwartz AD: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with pneumatocoele formation. Am J Dis Child 131: 470–471, 1973.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Levenson SM, Warren RD, Richman SD, et al: Abnormal pulmonary gallium accumulation in P. carinii pneumonia. Radiology 119: 395–398, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Fishman JA, Strauss HW, Fischman AJ, et al: Imaging of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia with 111 In-labelled non-specific polyclonal IgG: An experimental study in rats. Nucl Med Comm 12: 175–187, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Fishman JA: Radiologic approach to the diagnosis and management of Pneumocystis carinii. In Walzer P (ed): Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994, pp. 415–438.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hopewell PC: Bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy for the diagnosis of pulmonary infections in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 102: 747–752, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kovacs JA, Ng VL, Masur H, et al: Diagnosis of P. carinii pneumonia: Improved detection in sputum with use of monoclonal antibiotics. N Engl J Med 318: 589–593, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Stover DE, Zaman MB, Hajdu SI, et al: Bronchoalveolar lavage in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in the immunocompromised host. Ann Intern Med 101: 1–7, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Awen C, Baltzan M: Systemic dissemination of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Can Med Assoc J 104: 809–812, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Coulman CU, Greene I, Archibald RWR: Cutaneous Pneumocystis. Ann Intern Med 106: 396–398, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Barnett RW, Hull JG, Vorteil V, et al: Pneumocystis carinii in lymph nodes and spleen. Arch Pathol Lab Med 88: 175–181, 1969.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Raviglionne MC: Extrapulmonary pneumocystosis: The first fifty cases. Rev Infect Dis 12: 1127–1138, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lau WK, Young LS, Remington JS: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: Diagnosis by examination of pulmonary secretions. JAMA 236: 2399–2402, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Bigby PD, Margolskee D, Curtis J, et al: Usefulness of induced sputum in diagnosis of pneumonia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 133: 515–518, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Bigby TD, Margolskee D, Curtis JL, et al: The usefulness of induced sputum in the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am Rev Respir Dis 133: 515–518, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kovacs JA, Gill V, Swann JC, et al: Prospective evaluations of monoclonal antibody in diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Lancet 2: 1–3, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lim SK, Eveland WC, Porter RJ: Direct fluorescent-antibody method for the diagnosis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis from sputa or tracheal aspirates from humans. Appl Microbiol 27: 144–149, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Baughman RP: Current methods of diagnosis. In PD Walzer (ed): Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994, pp. 381–402.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pennington JE, Feldman NT: Pulmonary infiltrates and fever in patients with hematologic malignancy: Assessment of transbronchial biopsy. Am J Med 62: 581–587, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Blumenfeld W, Wager E, Hadley WK: Use of transbronchial biopsy for diagnosis of opportunistic pulmonary infections in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Am J Clin Pathol 81: 1–5, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Broaddus C, Dake MD, Stulbarg MS, et al: Bronchoalveolar lavage and transbronchial biopsy for the diagnosis of pulmonary infections in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 102: 747–752, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Burt ME, Flye WW, Webber BL, et al: Prospective evaluation of aspiration needle, cutting needle transbronchial, and open lung biopsy in patients with pulmonary infiltrates. Ann Thorac Surg 32: 146–153, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Coleman DL, Dodek PM, Luce JM, et al: Diagnostic utility of fiberoptic bronchoscopy in patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am Rev Resp Dis 128: 795–799, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Springmeyer SC, Silvestri, RC, Sale GE, et al: Role of transbronchial biopsy for the diagnosis of diffuse pneumonia in immunocompromised marrow transplant recipients. Am Rev Respir Dis 126: 763–765, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Chaudhary S, Hughes WT, Feldman S, et al: Percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration of the lung. Am J Dis Child 131: 902–906, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Rossiter SJ, Miller DC, Churg AM, et al: Open lung biopsy in the immunosuppresed patient. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 77: 338–345, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Young RC, DeVita VT Jr: Treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In Robbins JB, DeVita VT Jr, Dutz W (eds): Symposium on Pneumocystis carinii Infection: NCI Monograph 43. National Cancer Institute, Washington, DC, 1976, pp. 193–198.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Haverkos HW: PCP therapy project group: Assessment of therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Am J Med 76: 501–508, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hughes WT, Feldman S, Chaudhary SC, et al: Comparison of pentamidine isethionate and trimethoprim—sulfamethoxazole in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. J Pediatr 92: 285–291, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hughes WT, Feldman S, Sanyal SK: Treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Can Med Assoc J 112: 47S–50S, 1975.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Hughes WT, McNabb PC, Makres TD, et al: Efficacy of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in the prevention and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 5: 289–293, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wharton JM, Coleman DL, Wofsy CB, et al: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pentamidine for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 105: 37–44, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Kluge RM, Spaulding DM, Spain JA: Combination of pentamidine and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in the therapy of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in rats. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 13: 975–978, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Ivady G, Paldy L: Ein neues Behandlungserfarhren der interstitiellen plasmazelligen Pneumonie Frühgeborener mit fünfwertigen Stibium und aromatischen Diamidinen. Monatsschr Kinderheilkd 106: 10–14, 1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Western KA, Perera DR, Schultz MG: Pentamidine isethionate in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Ann Intern Med 73: 695–702, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Hughes WT, Kuhn S, Chaudhary S, et al: Successful chemoprophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia pneumonitis. N Engl J Med 297: 1419–1426, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Lau WK, Young LS: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in adults. N Engl J Med 295: 716–718, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Winston DJ, Lau WK, Gale RP, et al: Trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole for the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Ann Intern Med 97: 762–769, 1980.Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Young LS: Treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in adults with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Rev Infect Dis 4: 608–613, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Hughes WT, Smith BL: Efficacy of diaminodiphenyl sulfone and other drugs in murine Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 26: 436–440, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Hughes WT, Smith-McCain BL: Effects of sulfonyl urea compounds on Pneumocystis carinii. J Infect Dis 153: 944–947, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Leoung GS, Mills J, Hopewell PC, et al: Dapsone-trimethoprim for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 105: 45–48, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Medina I, Mills J, Leoung G, et al: Oral therapy for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A controlled trial of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole versus trimethoprim-dapsone. N Engl J Med 323: 776–782, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Metroka CE, McMechan MF, Andrada R, et al: Failure of prophylaxis with dapsone in patients taking dideoxyinosine. N Engl J Med 325: 737, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Noskin GA, Murphy RL, Black JR, et al: Salvage therapy with clindamycin/primaquine for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 14: 183–188, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Post C, Fakoughi T, Dutz W, et al: Prophylaxis of epidemic infantile pneumocystosis with a 20: 1 sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine combination. Curr Ther Res 13: 273–279, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Toma E, Fournier S, Poisson M, et al: Clindamycin with primaquine for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Lancet 1: 1046–1048, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Whisnant JK, Buckley RH: Successful pyrimethaminesulfadiazine therapy of Pneumocystis pneumonia in infants with X-linked immunodeficiency with hyper IgM. In Robbins JB, DeVita VT Jr, Dutz W (eds): Symposium on Pneumocystis carinii Infection: NCI Monograph 43. National Cancer Institute, Washington, DC, 1975, pp. 211–216.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Allegra CJ, Chabner BA, Luazon CU, et al: Trimetrexate for the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 317: 978–985, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Polsen DC, Kovacs JA, Lipschik GY: Folate antagonists in the treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. In PD Walzer (ed): Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1994, pp. 545–560.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Sattler FR, Allegra CJ, Verdegam TD, et al: Trimetrexate-leucovorin dosage evaluation study for treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. J Infect Dis 161: 91–96, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Allegra CJ, Kovacs JA, Chabner BA, et al: Potent in vivo and in vitro activity of a lipid soluble antifolate, trimetrexate, against Pneumocystis carinii. Clin Res 34: 674A, 1986.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Falloon J, Kovacs J, Hughes W, et al: A preliminary evaluation of 566C80 for the treatment of Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. New EnglJ Med 325: 1534–1538, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Golden JA, Sjoerdsma A, Santi DV: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia treated with alpha-difluoromethylornithine. West J Med 141: 613–623, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Bozzette SA, Sattler FR, Chiu J, et al, and the California Collaborative Treatment Group: A controlled trial of early adjunctive treatment with corticosteroids for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N. Engl J. Med 323: 1451–1457, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Gagnon S, Boota AM, Fisch MA, et al: Corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy for severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 323: 1444–1450, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    McGowan JE Jr, Chesney PJ, Crossley KB, et al: Guidelines for the use of systemic glucocorticosteroids in the management of selected infections. J Infect Dis 165: 1–13, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Montaner JSG, Lawson LM, Levitt N, et al: Corticosteroids prevent early deterioration in patients with moderately severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ann Intern Med 113: 14–20, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Hughes WT, Rivera GK, Schell MJ, et al: Successful intermittent prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis. N Engl J Med 316: 1627–1632, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Hughes WT, Price RA, Kim HK, et al: Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in children with malignancies. J Pediatr 82: 404–415, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Fischl MA: Fansidar prophylaxis of Pneumocystis pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 105: 629, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Hughes WT: Limited effect of trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis on Pneumocysis carinii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 16: 333–335, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hughes WT: Five-year absence of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonitis in a pediatric oncology center. J Infect Dis 150: 305–306, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Gottlieb M, Knight S, Mitsuyasu R, et al: Prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) with pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar). Lancet 2: 398–399, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Feldman HA: Toxoplasmosis: An overview. Bull NY Acad Med 50: 110–127.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Janku J: Pathogenesis and pathologic anatomy of coloboma of macula lutea in eye of normal dimensions, and in microphthalmic eye with parasites in return. Cas Lek Clsk 62: 1021–1027, 1923.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Jones TC, Hirsch JG: The interaction between Toxoplasma gondii and mammalian cells. II. The absence of lysosome fusion with phagocytic vacuoles containing living parasites. J Exp Med 136: 1173–1194, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Raisanen S: Toxoplasmosis transmitted by blood transfusions. Transfusion 18: 329–332, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Michaels MG, Wald ER, Ficker FJ, et al: Toxoplasmosis in pediatric recipients of heart transplants. Clin Infect Dis 14: 847–851, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Leak D, Meghji M: Toxoplasmic infection in cardiac disease. Am J Cardiol 43: 841–849, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Anderson SE Jr, Remington JS: Effect of normal and activated human macrophages on Toxoplasma gondii. J Exp Med 139: 1154–1174, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Araujo FG: Depletion of L3T4+ (CD4+) T lymphocytes prevents development of resistance to Toxoplasma gondii in mice. Infect Immun 59: 1614–1619, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    McLeod R, Remington JS: Influence of infection with toxoplasma on macrophage function, and role of macrophages in resistance to toxoplasma. Am J Trop Med Hyg 26: 170–186, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Lindberg RE, Frenkel JK: Toxoplasmosis in nude mice. J Parasitol 63: 210–221, 1977.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Frenkel JK: Effects of cortisone, total body radiation and nitrogen mustard on chronic latent toxoplasmosis. Am J Pathol 33: 618–619, 1957.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Strannegard O, Lycke E: Effect of antithymocyte serum on experimental toxoplasmosis in mice. Infect Immun 5: 769–774, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Remington JS, Krahenbuhl JL, Mendenhall JW: A role for activated macrophages in resistance to infection with toxoplasma. Infect Immun 6: 829–834, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Jones TC, Len L, Hirsch J: Assessment in vitro of immunity against Toxoplasma gondii. J Exp Med 171: 466–482, 1975.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hirsch R, Burke BA, Kersey JH: Toxoplasmosis in bone marrow transplant recipients. J Pediatr 105: 426–428, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Jehn V, Fink M, Gundlach P: Lethal cardiac and cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acute myeloioid leukemia after successful allogenic bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 38: 430–433, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Nicholdon DH, Wolchok EB: Ocular toxoplasmosis in an adult receiving long-term corticosteroid therapy. Arch Ophthalmol 94: 248–257, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    O’Connor GR, Frenkel JK: Dangers of steroid treatment in toxoplasmosis. Arch Ophthalmol 94: 213, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Rose AG, Uys CJ, Novitsky D, et al: Toxoplasmosis of donor and recipient hearts after heterotopic cardiac transplantations. Arch Pathol Lab Med 107: 368–373, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Ryning FW, McLeod R, Madox JC, et al: Probable transmission of Toxoplasma gondii by organ transplantation. Ann Intern Med 84: 47–49, 1979.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Swartzberg JE, Krahenbuhl JL, Remington JS: Dichotomy between macrophage activation and degree of protection against Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii in mice stimulated with Corynebacterium parvum. Infect Immun 12: 1037–1043, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Wong B, Gold JWM, Brown AE, et al: Central nervous system toxoplasmosis in homosexual men and parenteral drug abusers. Ann Intern Med 100: 36–42, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Ruskin J, Remington JS: Toxoplasmosis in the compromised host. Ann Intern Med 84: 193–199, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Barlotta FM, Odhoa M Jr, Neu HC, et al: Toxoplasmosis, lymphoma or both?. Ann Intern Med 70: 517–528, 1979.Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Herb HM, Jontofsoh R, Loffler HD, et al: Toxoplasmosis after renal transplantation. Clin Nephrol 8: 529–532, 1978.Google Scholar
  178. 178.
    Luft BJ, Naot Y, Araujo FG, et al: Primary and reactivated toxoplasma infection in patients with cardiac transplant: Clinical spectrum and problems in diagnosis in a defined population. Ann Intern Med 99: 27–31, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Whiteside JD, Begent RHJ: Toxoplasma encephalitis complicating Hodgkin’s disease. J Clin Pathol 28: 443–445, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Brooks RG, McCabe RE, Remington JS: Role of serology in the diagnosis of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. Rev Infect Dis 9: 1055–1062, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    McCabe RE, Brooks RG, Dorfman RF, et al: Clinical spectrum in 107 cases of toxoplasmic lymphadenopathy. Rev Infect Dis 9: 754–774, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Siim JC: Acquired toxoplasmosis: Report of seven cases with strongly positive serologic reactions. JAMA 147: 1651–1654, 1951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Gard S, Magnusson HJ: Glandular form of toxoplasmosis in connection with pregnancy. Acta Med Scand 141: 59–64, 1951.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Welch PC, Masur H, Jones TC, et al: Serologic diagnosis of acute lymphadenopathic toxoplasmosis. J Infect Dis 142: 256–264, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Wolf A, Cowen D, Paige B: Human toxoplasmosis: Occurrence in infants with encephalomyelitis—Verification by transmission to animals. Science 89: 226–227, 1939.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Rollins DF, Tabbara KF, O’Connor GR, et al: Detection of toxoplasma antigen and antibody in ocular fluids in experimental ocular toxoplasmosis. Arch Ophthalmol 101: 455–457, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Siegel S, Lunde M, Gelderman A, et al: Transmission of toxoplasmosis by leukocyte transfusion. Blood 37: 388–394, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Stinson EB, Biber CP, Griepp RB, et al: Infectious complications after transplantation in man. Ann Intern Med 74: 22–36, 1971.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Dummer JS, Bahnson HT, Griffith BP, et al: Infections in patients on cyclosporine and prednisone following cardiac transplantation. Transplant Proc 14: 2779–2781, 1983.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Luft BJ, Naot Y, Araujo FG, et al: Primary and reactivated toxoplasma infection in patients with cardiac transplants. Ann Intern Med 99: 27–31, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Hakin M, Wreghitt TG, English TAH, et al: Significance of donor transmitted disease in cardiac transplantation. Heart Transplant 4: 302–306, 1985.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Hakin M, Esmore D, Wallwork J, et al: Toxoplasmosis in cardiac transplantation. Br Med J 292: 1108–1109, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Pomeroy C, Filice GA: Pulmonary toxoplasmosis: A review. Clin Infect Dis 14: 863–870, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Fishman, JA: Protozoan infection of the lungs. In Fishman AP (ed): Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders, Chapter 104. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Jacobs F, Depierreux M, Goldman M, et al: Role of bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosis of disseminated toxoplasmosis. Rev Infect Dis 13: 637–641, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Oksenhendler E, Cadranel J, Sarfati C, et al: Toxoplasma gondii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med 88: 18N–21N, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Snider WD, Simpson DM, Neilsen S, et al: Neurological complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Analysis of 50 patients. Ann Nenrol 14: 403–418, 1983.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Ghatak NR, Sawyer DR: A morphologic study of opportunistic cerebral toxoplasmosis. Acta Neuropathol 42: 217–221, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Kerstin F, Newmann J: “Malignant lymphoma” of the brain following renal transplantation. Acta Neuropathol 6: 131–133, 1975.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Luft BJ, Brooks RG, Conley FK, et al: Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. JAMA 252: 913–917, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Luft BJ, Remington JS: Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system. In Remington JS, Swartz M (eds): Current Clinical Topics in Infectious Disease, Vol. 5. McGraw-Hill, New York, 1985, pp. 315–358.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Luft BJ, Remington JS: Toxoplasmic encephalitis. J Infect Dis 157: 1–6, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Powell HC, Gibbs JC Jr, Lorenzo AM, et al: Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system in the adult: Electron microscopic observations. Acta Neuropathol 41: 211–216, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Schulkof LA, Russell JR: Intracerebral toxoplasmosis presenting as a mass lesion. Surg Neurol 4: 9–11, 1975.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Slavick HE, Lipman IJ: Brain stem toxoplasmosis complicating Hodgkin’s disease. Arch Neurol 34: 636–637, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Wanke C, Tuazon CU, Kovacs A, et al: Toxoplasma encephalitis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Diagnosis and response to therapy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36: 509–516, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Menges HW, Fischer E, Valavanis A, et al: Cerebral toxoplasmosis in the adult. J. Comput Assist Tomogr 3: 413–416, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Ciricillo SF, Rosenblum ML: Use of CT and MR imaging to distinguish intracranial lesions and to define the need for biopsy in AIDS patients. J Neurosurg 73: 720–724, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Shepp DH, Hackman RC, Conley FK, et al: Toxoplasma gondii reactivation identified by detection of parasitemia in tissue culture. Ann Intern Med 103: 218–221, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Hofflin JM, Remington JS: Tissue culture isolation of toxoplasma from blood of a patient with AIDS. Arch Intern Med 145: 925–926, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Dorfman RF, Remington JS: Value of lymph-node biopsy in the diagnosis of acute acquired toxoplasmosis. N Engl J Med 289: 878–881, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Araujo FG, Remington JS: Antigenemia in recently acquired acute toxoplasmosis. J Infect Dis 141: 144–150, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Brooks RG, Sharma SD, Remington JS: Detection of Toxoplasma gondii antigens by a dot-immunobinding technique. J Clin Microbiol 21: 113–116, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Sabin AV, Ruchman I: Characteristics of toxoplasma neutralizing antibody. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 51: 1–6, 1942.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Desmonts G: Definitive serologic diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis. Arch Ophthalmol 76: 839–851, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Potasman I, Resnick L, Luft BJ, et al: Intrathecal production of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in patients with toxoplasmic encephalitis and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ann Intern Med 108: 49–51, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Sabin A, Feldman HA: Dyes as michrochemical indicators of a new immunity phenomenon affecting a protozoan parasite (Toxoplasma). Science 108: 660–663, 1978.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Remington JS, Eimstad WM, Araujo FG: Detection of immunoglobulin M antibodies with antigen-tagged latex particles in an immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 17: 939–941, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Remington JS, Miller MJ, Brownlee I: IgM antibodies in acute toxoplasmosis. II. Prevalence and significance in acquired cases. J Lab Clin Med 71: 855–866, 1968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Desmonts G, Remington JS: Direct agglutination test for diagnosis of toxoplasma infection: Method for increasing sensitivity and specificity. J Clin Microbiol 11: 562–568, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    McCabe RE, Gibbons D, Brooks RG, et al: Agglutination test for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in AIDS. Lancet 2: 680, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Siegel JP, Remington JS: Comparison of methods for quantitating antigen specific immunoglobulin M antibody with a reverse enzyme linked immunoabsorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 18: 63–70, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Walls KW, Bullock SL, English DK: Use of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and its microadaptation for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. J Clin Microbiol 5: 273–277, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Wielaard F, van Gruighuigsen H, Duermeyer W, et al: Diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis by an enzyme immunoassay for specific immunoglobulin M antibodies. J Clin Microbiol 17: 981–987, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Hakes TB, Armstrong D: Toxoplasmosis: Problems in diagnosis and treatment. Cancer 52: 1535–1540, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Cohn JA, McMeeking A, Cohen W, et al: Evaluation of the policy of empiric treatment of suspected toxoplasma encephalitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Med 86: 521–527, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Dannemann B, McCutchan JA, Israelski D, et al (California Collaborative Treatment Group): Treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS. Ann Intern Med 116: 33–43, 1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Haverkos HW: Assessment of therapy for toxoplasma encephalitis. Am J Med 82: 907, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Danneman BR, Israelski DM, Remington JS: Treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis with intravenous clindamycin. Arch Intern Med 148: 2477–2482, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Katlama C: Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of clindamycin plus pyrimethamine for induction and maintenance therapy of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 10: 189–191, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Heald A, Flepp M, Chave J-P, et al (Swiss HIV Cohort Study): Treatment for cerebral toxoplasmosis protects against Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS. Ann Intern Med 115: 760–763, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Leport C, Vilde JL, Katlama C, et al: Failure of spiramycin to prevent neurotoxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients. JAMA 255: 2290, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Kovacs JA, Allegra CJ, Chabner BA, et al: Potent effect of trimetrexate, a lipid-soluble antifolate, on Toxoplasma gondii. J Infect Dis 155: 1027–1032, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Araujo FG, Prokocimer P, Remington JS: Clarithromycin-minocycline is synergistic in a murine model of toxoplasmosis. J Infect Dis 165: 788, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Grossman P, Remington J: The effect of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole on Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo. Am J Trop Med Hyg 28: 445–455, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Hakim M: Toxoplasmosis in cardiac transplantation. Br Med J 92: 1108, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Guerrant RL, Bobak DA: Bacterial and protozoal gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med 325: 327–340, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Laughon BE, Druckman DA, Vernon A, et al: Prevalence of enteric pathogens in homosexual men with and without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Gastroenterology 94: 984–993, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Miller RA, Holmberg R Jr, Clausen CR: Life-threatening diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium in a child undergoing therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. J Pediatr 103: 256–259, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Moura H, Femandes O, Viola JPB, et al: Enteric parasites and HIV infection: Occurrence in AIDS patients in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Rio de Janeiro 84: 527–533, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Soave R, Armstrong D: Cryptosporidium and cryptosporidiosis. Rev Infect Dis 8: 1012–1023, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Soave R, Johnson WD Jr: Cryptosporidium and Isospora belli infections. J. Infect Dis 157: 225–229, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Vuorio A, Jokipii AMM, Jokipii L: Cryptosporidium in asymptomatic children. Rev Infect Dis 13: 261–264, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Wolfson JS, Richter JM, Waldron MA, et al: Cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent patients. N Engl J Med 213: 1278–1282, 1985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Connolly GM, Dryden MS, Shanson DC, et al: Cryptosporidial diarrhea in AIDS and its treatment. Gut 29: 593–597, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Moore JD, Buster SH: Intestinal parasites in Haitian entrants. J Infect Dis 150: 965, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Fleming AF: Opportunistic infections in AIDS in developed and developing countries. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 84: 1–6, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Colebunders R, Lusakumuni K, Nelson AM, et al: Persistent diarrhoea in Zairian AIDS patients: An endoscopic and histological study. Gut 29: 1687–1691, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Whiteside ME, Barkin JS, May RG, et al: Enteric coccidiosis among patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33: 1065–1072, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Smith PD, Lane HC, Gill VJ, et al: Intestinal infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ann Intern Med 108: 328–333, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Bogaerts J, Lepage P, Rouvroy D, et al: Cryptosporidium spp., a frequent cause of diarrhea in central Africa. J Clin Microbiol 20: 874–876, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Shepherd RC, Reed CL, Sinha GP: Shedding of oocysts of Cryptosporidium in immunocompetent patients. J Clin Pathol 41: 1104–1106, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Caprioli A, Gentile G, Baldassarri L, et al: Cryptosporidium as a common cause of childhood diarrhoea in Italy. Epidemiol Infect 102: 537–540, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Current WL, Reese NC, Ernst JV, et al: Human cryptosporidiosis in immunocompetent and immunodeficient persons: Studies of an outbreak and experimental transmission. N Engl J Med 308: 1252–1257, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    DuPont HL: Cryptosporidiosis and the healthy host. N Engl J Med 312: 1319–1320, 1985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Weisburger WR, Hutcheon DF, Yardley JH, et al: Cryptosporidiosis in an immunosuppressed renal-transplant recipient with IgA deficiency. Am J Clin Pathol 72: 473–478, 1979.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Darban H, Enriquez J, Sterling CR, et al: Cryptosporidiosis facilitated by murine retroviral infection with LP-BM5. J Infect Dis 164: 741–745, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Tzipori S: Cryptosporidiosis in animals and humans. Microbiol Rev 47: 84–96, 1983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Gentile G, Venditti M, Micozzi A, et al: Cryptosporidiosis in patients with hematologic malignancies. Rev Infect Dis 13: 842–846, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Gentile G, Caprioli A, Donelli G, et al: Asymptomatic carriage of Cryptosporidium in two patients with leukemia [letter]. Am J Infect Control 18: 127–128, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Soave R, Ma P: Cryptosporidiosis: Traveler’s diarrhea in two families. Arch Intern Med 145: 7–72, 1983.Google Scholar
  262. 262.
    Horowitz MA, Hughes JM, Craun GF: Outbreaks of waterborne disease in the United States. J Infect Dis 133: 588–593, 1974.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Hayes EB, Matte TD, O’Brien TR, et al: Large community outbreak of cryptosporidiosis due to contamination of a filtered public water supply. N Engl J Med 320: 1372–1376, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Martino P, Gentile G, Caprioli A, et al: Hospital-acquired cryptosporidiosis in a bone marrow transplantation unit. J Infect Dis 158: 647–648, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Roncoroni AJ, Gomez MA, Mera J, et al: Cryptosporidium infection in renal transplant. J Infect Dis 160: 559, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Rehg JE, Hancock ML, Woodmansee DB: Characterization of a dexamethasone-treated model of cryptosporidial infection. J Infect Dis 158: 1406–1407, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Dryden MS, Shanson DC: The microbial causes of diarrhea in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis 17: 107–114, 1988.Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Kaljot KT, Ling JP, Gold JW, et al: Prevalence of acute enteric viral pathogens in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with diarrhea. Gastroenterology 97: 1031–1032, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Knight R, Wright SG: Progress report: Intestinal protozoa. Gut 19: 940, 1978.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Kotler DP, Francisco A, Clayton F, et al: Small intestinal injury and parasitic diseases in AIDS. Ann Intern Med 113: 444–449, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Ungar B: Enzyme-linked immunoassay for detections of Cryptosporidium antigens in fecal specimens. J Clin Microbiol 28: 2491–2495, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Erlandsen SL, Chase DG: Morphological alterations in the microvillous border of villous epithelial cells produced by intestinal microorganisms. Am J Clin Nutr 27: 1277–1286, 1974.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Kibbler CC, Smith A, Hamilton-Dutoit SJ, et al: Pulmonary cryptosporidiosis occurring in a bone marrow transplant patient. Scand J Infect Dis 19: 581–584, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Ma P, Villanueva TG, Kaufman D, et al: Respiratory cryptosporidiosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Use of modified cold Kinyoun and Hemacolor stains for rapid diagnosis. JAMA 252: 1298–1301, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Meisel JL, Perera DR, MeLigro C, et al: Overwhelming watery diarrhea associated with Cryptosporidium in an immunosup-pressed patient. Gastroenterology 70: 1156–1160, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Ament ME, Ochs HD, Davis SD: Structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract in primary immunodeficiency syndrome: A study of 39 patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 52: 227–248, 1973.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Moskovitz BL, Stanton TL, Kusmierek JJ: Spiramycin therapy for cryptosporidial diarrhoea in immunocompromised patients. J Antimicrob Chemother 22: 189–191, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Portnoy D, Whiteside ME, Buckley E III, et al: Treatment of intestinal cryptosporidiosis with spiramycin. Ann Intern Med 101: 202–204, 1984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Louie E, Borkowsky W, Klesius PK, et al: Treatment of cryptosporidiosis with oral bovine transfer factor. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 44: 329–334, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Saxon A, Weinstein W: Oral administration of bovine colostrum anticryptosporidia antibody fails to alter the course of human cryptosporidiosis. J Parasitol 73: 413–415, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Cook DJ, Kelton JG, Stanisz AM, et al: Somatostatin treatment for cryptosporidial diarrhea in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Ann Intern Med 108: 708–709, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Cello JP, Grendell JH, Basuk P, et al: Effect of octreotide on refractory AIDS-associated diarrhea. Ann Intern Med 115: 705–710, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Nousbaum JB, Robaszkiewicz M, Cauvin JM, et al: Treatment of intestinal cryptosporidiosis with zidovudine and SMS 201-995, a somatostatin analog. Gastroenterology 101: 874, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Godiwala T, Yaeger R: Isospora and traveler’s diarrhea, Ann Intern Med 106: 908–909, 1987.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    DeHovitz A, Pape JW, Boney M, et al: Clinical manifestations and therapy of Isospora belli infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 315: 87–90, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    DeHovitz J: Management of Isospora belli infections in AIDS patients. Infect Med 5: 437–440, 1988.Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    Pape JW, Verdier RI, Johnson WD Jr: Treatment and prophylaxis of Isospora belli infection in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. N Engl J Med 320: 1044–1047, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Bryan RT, Cali A, Owen RL, et al: Microsporidia: Opportunistic pathogens in patients with AIDS. In Sun T (ed): Progress in Clinical Parasitology, Vol. II. Field &Wood, New York, 1991, pp. 1–26.Google Scholar
  289. 289.
    Desportes I, Charpentier Y, Gallian A, et al: Occurrence of a new microsporidian: Entercytozoon bieneusi n.g., n.sp., in the enterocysts of a human patient with AIDS. J Protozool 32: 250–254, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Orenstein JM, Chiang J, Steinberg W, et al: Intestinal microsporidiosis as a cause of diarrhea in HIV-infected patients: A report of 20 cases. Hum Pathol 21: 475–481, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Cali A, Owen RL: Microsporidiosis. In Balows A, Hausler WJ Jr, Ohashi M, et al (eds): Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases: Principles and Practice. Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988, pp. 929–950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Cali A, Owen RL: Intracellular development of Enterocytozoon, a unique microsporidian found in the intestine of AIDS patients. J Protozool 37: 145–155, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Weber R, Bryan RT, Owen RL, et al (Enteric Opportunistic Infections Working Group): Improved light-microscopical detection of Microsporidia spores in stool and duodenal aspirates. N Engl J Med 326: 161–166, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Genta RM: Global prevalence of strongyloidiasis: Critical review with epidemiologic insight into the prevention of disseminated disease. Rev Infect Dis 11: 755–767, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Neva FA: Biology and immunology of human strongyloidiasis. J Infect Dis 153: 397–406, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Igra-Siegman Y, Kapila R, Sen P, et al: Syndrome of hyperinfec-tion with Strongyloides stercoralis. Rev Infect Dis 3: 397–407, 1981.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Scowden EB, Schaffner W, Stone WJ: Overwhelming strongyloidiasis: An unappreciated opportunistic infection. Medicine (Baltimore) 57: 527–544, 1978.Google Scholar
  298. 298.
    Rivera E, Maldonado N, Velez-Garcia E, et al: Hyperinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis. Ann Intern Med 72: 199–204, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Yim, Y, Kikkawa Y, Tanowitz H, et al: Fatal strongyloidiasis in Hodgkin’s disease after immunosuppressive therapy. J Trop Med Hyg 73: 245–249, 1970.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Rogers W, Nelson B: Strongyloidiasis and malignant lymphoma. JAMA 195: 173–175, 1966.Google Scholar
  301. 301.
    Purtilo DT, Meyers WM, Connor DH: Fatal strongyloidiasis in immunosuppressed patients. Am J Med 56: 488–493, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Maayan S, Wormser GP, Widerhorn J, et al: Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Am J Med 83: 945–948, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Kuberski TT, Gabor EP, Bourdreaux D: Disseminated strongyloidiasis—A complication of the immunosuppressed host. West J Med 122: 504–508, 1975.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Cohen J, Spry CJF: Strongyloides stercoralis infection and small intestinal lymphoma. Parasitol Immunol 1: 167–169, 1979.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    De Oliviera RB, Voltarelli JC, Meneghelli VG: Severe strongyloidiasis associated with hypogammaglobulinemia. Parasitol Immunol 3: 165–169, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Kramer MR, Gregg PA, Goldstein M, et al: Disseminated strongyloidiasis in AIDS and non-AIDS immunocompromised hosts: Diagnosis by sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage. South Med J 83: 1226–1229, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Berger R, Kraman S, Paciotti M: Pulmonary strongyloidiasis complicating therapy with corticosteroids, Am J Trop Med Hyg 29: 31–34, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Higenbotham TW, Heard BE: Opportunistic pulmonary strongyloidasis complicating asthma treated with steroids. Thorax 31: 226–233, 1976.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Meltzer RS, Singer C, Armstrong D, et al: Pulmonary strongyloidiasis complicating therapy with corticosteroids. Am J Med Sci 277: 91–98, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Meyers AM, Shapiro DJ, Milne FJ, et al: Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection in a renal allograft recipient. South Afr Med J 50: 1301–1302, 1976.Google Scholar
  311. 311.
    Nwokolo C, Imohiosen EAE: Strongyloidiasis of respiratory tract presenting as “asthma.” Br Med J 2: 153–154, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Scoggin CH, Call NB: Acute respiratory failure due to disseminated strongyloidiasis in a renal transplant recipient. Ann Intern Med 87: 456–458, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Cruz T, Reboucas G, Rocha H: Fatal strongyloidiasis in patients receiving corticosteroids. N Engl J Med 275: 1093–1096, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Civantos F, Robinson MJ: Fatal strongyloidiasis following corticosteroid therapy. Am J Dig Dis 14: 643–651, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Cookson JB, Montgomery RD, Morgan HV, et al: Fatal paralytic ileus due to strongyloidiasis. Br Med J 4: 771–772, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Rassiga AL, Lawry JL, Forman WB: Diffuse pulmonary infection due to Strongyloides stercoralis. JAMA 230: 426–430, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Naquira C, Jiminez G, Guerra JG, et al: Ivermectin for human strongyloidiasis and other intestinal helminths. Am J Trop Med Hyg 40: 304–309, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Ravdin JI: Amebiasis. In Human Infection by Entamoeba histolytica. John Wiley, New York, 1988, pp.Google Scholar
  319. 319.
    Sargeaunt PG, Jackson TFHG, Simjee AE: Biochemical homogeneity of Entamoeba histolytica isolates, especially those from liver abscess. Lancet 1: 1386–1388, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Villarejos SVM: Corticosteroid and experimental amoebiasis in rats. J Parasitol 48: 194, 1962.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Anaya-Velazquez F, Tsutsumi V, Gonzolez-Robles A, et al: Intestinal invasive amebiasis: An experimental model in rodents using axenic or monoxenic strains of Entamoeba histolytica. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 723–730, 1985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Allason-Jones E, Mindel A, Sargeaunt P, et al: Entamoeba histolytica as a commensal intestinal parasite in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 315: 353–356, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Sullam PM: Entamoeba histolytica in homosexual men. N Engl J Med 316: 690, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Antony MA, Brandt LJ, Klein RS, et al: Infectious diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Dig Dis Sci 33: 1141–1146, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    El-Hannawy M, Abd-Rabbo H: Hazards of cortisone therapy in hepatic amebiasis. J Trop Med Hyg 81: 71–73, 1978.Google Scholar
  326. 326.
    Denis M, Chadee K: Immunopathology of Entamoeba histolytica infections. Parasitol Today 4: 247–252, 1988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Kretschmer RR: Immunology of amebiasis. In Martinez-Palomo A (ed): Amebiasis. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1986, pp. 95–167.Google Scholar
  328. 328.
    Trissl D: Immunology of Entamoeba histolytica in human and animal hosts. Rev. Infect Dis 4: 1154–1184, 1982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Nanda R, Baveja U, Annand BS: Entamoeba histolytica cyst passers: Clinical features and outcome in untreated subjects. Lancet 2: 301–303, 1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Balikian JP, Bitar JG, Rishani KK, et al: Fulminant necrotizing amebic colitis in children. Am J Protocol 28: 69–78, 1977.Google Scholar
  331. 331.
    Cardoso JM, Kimura K, Stoopen M, et al: Radiology of invasive amebiasis of the colon. J Roentgenol 128: 935–946, 1977.Google Scholar
  332. 332.
    Rails PW, Barnes PF, Johnson MB, et al: Medical treatment of hepatic amebic abscess: Rare need for percutaneous drainage. Radiology 165: 805–807, 1987.Google Scholar
  333. 333.
    Duma RJ, Ferrell HW, Nelson CE, et al: Primary amebic meningoencephalitis, N Engl J Med 281: 1315–1323, 1969.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Duma RJ, Finley R: In vitro susceptibility of pathogenic Naegleria and Acanthamoeba species to a variety of therapeutic agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 10: 370–376, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Grimaldi G Jr, Tesh RB, McMahon-Pratt D: A review of the geographical distribution and epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the New World. Am J Trop Med Hyg 41: 687–725, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Ma DDF, Concannon AJ, Hayes J: Fatal leishmaniasis in renaltransplant patients, Lancet 2: 311–312, 1979.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Cerf BJ, Jones TC, Badaro R, et al: Malnutrition as a risk factor for severe visceral leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis 156: 1030–1033, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Harrison LH, Naidu TG, Drew JS, et al: Reciprocal relationship between underautrition and the parasitic disease visceral leishmaniasis. Rev Infect Dis 8: 447–453, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Pampiglione S, Manson-Bahr PEC, Giungu F, et al: Studies on Mediterranean leishmaniasis. II. Asymptomatic cases of visceral leishmaniasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 68: 447–453, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Aguardo JM, Gomez J, Figuera A, et al: Visceral leishmaniasis complicating acute leukemia. J Infect Dis 7: 272–274, 1983.Google Scholar
  341. 341.
    Aguardo JM, Plaza J, Escudero A: Visceral leishmaniasis in renal-transplant recipient. J Infect 13: 301–302, 1986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Badaro R, Carvalho EM, Rocha H, et al: Leishmania donovani: An opportunistic microbe associated with progressive disease in three immunocompromised patients. Lancet 1: 647–649, 1986.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Broeckaert A, Michielsen P, Vandepitte J: Fatal leishmaniasis in renal-transplant patient. Lancet 2: 740–741, 1979.Google Scholar
  344. 344.
    Fernandez-Guerrero ML, Aguado JM, Buzon L, et al: Visceral leishmaniasis in immunocompromised hosts. Am J Med 83: 1098–1102, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Herne N: Mediterranean kala-azar in two adults treated with immunosuppressive agents. Rev Med Interne 1: 237–240, 1980.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Montalban C, Martinez-Fernandez R, Calleja JL, et al: Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) as an opportunistic infection in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus in Spain. Rev Infect Dis 11: 655–660, 1989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Yebra M, Segovia J, Manzano L, et al: Disseminated-to-skin kala-azar and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Ann Intern Med 108: 490–491, 1988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Murray HW, Rubin BY, Rothermel CD: Killing of intracelluar Leishmania donovani by lymphokine-stimulated human mononuclear phagocytes: Evidence that interferon-gamma is the activating lymphokine. J Clin Invest 72: 1506–1510, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Weiser WY, Van Neil A, Clark SC, et al: Recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor activates intracellular killing of Leishmania donovani by human monocytederived macrophages. J Exp Med 166: 1436–1446, 1987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Carvalho EM, Teixeira R, Johnson WD: Cell mediated immunity in American visceral leishmaniasis: Reversible immunosuppression during acute infection. Infect Immun 33: 498–502, 1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Badaro R, Reed S, Barrai A, et al: Evaluation of the micro enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to American visceral leishmaniasis: Standardization of parasite antigen to detect infection-specific responses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 72–78, 1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Navin TR, Arana BA, Arana FE, et al: Placebo-controlled clinical trial of sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) versus ketoconazole for treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in Guatemala. J Infect Dis 165: 528–534, 1992.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Hoskins LC, Winawer SJ, Broitman SA, et al: Clinical giardiasis and intestinal malabsorption. Gastroenterology 53: 265–279, 1967.Google Scholar
  354. 354.
    Keysteon JS, Krajden S, Warren MR: Person-to-person transmission of Giardia lamblia in day care nurseries. Can Med Assoc J 119: 241–248, 1978.Google Scholar
  355. 355.
    Smith PD, Keister DB, Elson CO: Human host response to Giardia lamblia trophozoites. II. Antibody-dependent killing in vitro. Cell Immunol 82: 308–315, 1983.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Hermans PE, Huizenga KA, Hoffman HN, et al: Dysgammaglobulinemia associated with nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the small intestine, Am J Med 40: 78–89, 1966.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Jones EG, Brown WR: Serum and intestinal fluid immunoglobulin in patients with giardiasis. Am J Dig Dis 19: 791–796, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Roberts-Thomson IC, Stevens DP, Mahmoud AA, et al: Acquired resistance to infection in an animal model of giardiasis. J Immunol 117: 2036–2037, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Roberts-Thomson IC, Mitchell GF: Giardiasis in mice. I. Prolonged infections in certain mouse strains and hypothymic (nude) mice. Gastroenterology 75: 42–50, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Stevens DP, Frank DM, Mahmoud AAF: Thymus dependency of host resistance to Giardia muris infection: Studies in nude mice. J Immunol 120: 680–682, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Zinneman HH, Kaplan AP: The association of giardiasis with reduced intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A. Am J Dig Dis 17: 793–797, 1972.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Ament ME, Rubin CE: Relation of giardiasis to abnormal intestinal structure and function in gastrointestinal immunodeficiency syndromes. Gastroenterology 62: 216–226, 1972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Stevens DP, Frank DM: Local immunity in murine giardiasis: Is milk protective at the expense of maternal gut?. Trans Assoc Am Physicians 91: 268–272, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Owen RL: Sexually related intestinal disease. In Sleisenger MH, Fordtran JS (eds): Gastrointestinal Disease, 3rd ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, 1983, pp. 966–985.Google Scholar
  365. 365.
    Philips SC, Mildvan D, William DC, et al: Sexual transmission of enteric protozoa and helminths in a venereal disease clinical population. N Engl J Med 305: 603–606, 1981.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Schmerin MJ, Jones TC, Klein H, et al: Giardiasis: Association with homosexuality. Ann Intern Med 88: 801–803, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Janoflf EN, Smith PD, Blaser MJ: Acute antibody responses to Giardia lamblia are depressed in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Infect Dis 157: 798–804, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Balck RE, Dykes AC, Sinclair SP, et al: Giardiasis in day care centers: Evidence of person-to-person transmission. Pediatrics 60: 486–491, 1977.Google Scholar
  369. 369.
    Barbour AG, Nichols CR, Fukushima T: An outbreak of giardiasis in a group of campers. Am J Trop Med 25: 384–389, 1976.Google Scholar
  370. 370.
    Brodsky RE, Spencer HC, Schultz MG: Giardiasis in American travelers in the Soviet Union. J Infect Dis 130: 319–323, 1974.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Butler T, Middleton FG, Earnest DL, et al: Chronic and recurrent diarrhea in American servicemen in Vietnam. Arch Intern Med 132: 373–377, 1973.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Dykes AC, Juanek DD, Lorenz RA: Municipal water-borne giardiasis: An epidemiologic investigation: Beavers implied as a possible reservoir. Ann Intern Med 92: 165–170, 1980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Shaw PK, Brodsky RE, Lyman DO, et al: A community-wide outbreak of giardiasis with documented transmission by municipal water. Ann Intern Med 87: 426–432, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Morecki R, Parker JG: Ultrastructure studies of the human Giardia lamblia and subjacent jejunal mucosa in a subject with steatorrhea. Gastroenterology 52: 51–164, 1967.Google Scholar
  375. 375.
    Sheehy TW, Holley HP Jr: Giardia-induced malabsorption in pancreatitis. JAMA 233: 1373–1375, 1975.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Tandon BN, Tandon RK, Satpathy BK, et al: Mechanism of malabsorption in giardiasis: A study of bacterial flora and bile salt deconjugation in upper jejunum. Gut 18: 176–181, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    Saha TK, Ghosh TK: Invasion of small intestinal mucosa by Giardia lamblia in man. Gastroenterology 72: 402–405, 1977.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Tapper ML, Armstrong D: Malaria complicating neoplastic disease. Arch Intern Med 136: 807–810, 1976.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Healy GR: Babesia infections in man. Hosp Prac 13: 107–116, 1979.Google Scholar
  380. 380.
    Healy GR, Wlazer PD, Sulzer AJ: A case of asymptomatic babesiosis in Georgia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 25: 376–378, 1976.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Ruebush TK II, Spielman A: Human babesiosis in the United States. Ann Intern Med 88: 263, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Ruebush TK II, Cassaday PB, March JH, et al: Human babesiosis on Nantucket Island: Clinical features. Ann Intern Med 86: 6–9, 1977.Google Scholar
  383. 383.
    Ruebush TK II, Juranek DD, Chisholm ES, et al: Human babesiosis on Nantucket Island: Evidence for self-limited and subclinical infections. N Engl J Med 297: 825–827, 1977.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Chisholm ES, Ruebush TK II, Sulzer AJ, et al: Babesia microti infection in man: Evaluation of an indirect immunoflorescent antibody test. Am J Trop Med Hyg 7: 14–19, 1978.Google Scholar
  385. 385.
    Miller LH, Neva FH, Gill F: Failure of chloroquine in human babesiosis (Babesia microti). Ann Intern Med 88: 200–202, 1978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Rowin KS, Tanowitz HB, Wittner M: Therapy of experimental babesiosis. Ann Intern Med 97: 556–558, 1982.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Ortega YR, Sterling CR, Gilmann RH, et al: Cyclospora species — a new protozoan pathogen of humans. N Engl J Med 328: 1308–1312, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Hoge CW, Shlim DR, Rahaj R, et al: Epidemiology of diarrhoeal illness associated with coccidian-like organism among travellers and foreign residents in Nepal. Lancet 341: 1175–1179, 1993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Shlim DR, Cohen MT, Eaton M, et al: An alga-like organism associated with an outbreak of prolonged diarrhea among foreigners in Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 45: 383–389, 1991.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Hart AS, Ridinger MT, Soundarajan R, et al: Novel organism associated with chronic diarrhoea in AIDS. Lancet 335: 169–170, 1990.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Long EG, White EH, Carmichael WW, et al: Morphologic and staining characteristics of cyanobacterium-like organism associated with diarrhea. J Infect Dis 164: 199–202, 1991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jay Alan Fishman
    • 1
  1. 1.Infectious Disease Unit, Medical Service and Transplantation Unit, Surgical Service, Massachusetts General HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA

Personalised recommendations