Molecular Mechanisms of Alcohol Neurotoxicity

  • Fulton T. Crews
  • Hunter Newsom
  • Mark Gerber
  • Colin Sumners
  • L. Judson Chandler
  • Gerhard Freund

Abstract

Heavy alcohol consumption over a period of years can lead to cognitive and neurological impairments. Studies have indicated that alcoholics have greatly reduced brain volume. Computer tomographic studies of the brains of alcoholics have indicated that chronic alcoholism leads to enlargement of the ventricles, decreases in tissue volume and increases in cerebral spinal fluid volume, i.e. brain shrinkage (Pfefferbaum et al. 1992). Although changes are somewhat similar to those that occur during normal aging, the increase in size of the lateral ventricles and the increase in the cortical space between sulci clearly indicate that the brain of alcoholics have a decrease in cellular mass above that found in age matched non-alcoholics (Pfefferbaum et al., 1992; Jernigan et al., 1992). The increases in cerebral spinal fluid spaces are particularly associated with loss of the gray matter with some reduction also occurring in white matter. These losses in cortical tissue are possibly an acceleration of age-induced effects as well as the cumulative toxicity that occurs during a lifetime of chronic alcohol exposure.

Keywords

Ischemia Dopamine Dementia Glycine Adenosine 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fulton T. Crews
    • 1
  • Hunter Newsom
    • 1
  • Mark Gerber
    • 1
  • Colin Sumners
    • 1
  • L. Judson Chandler
    • 1
  • Gerhard Freund
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Alcohol Research Department of PharmacologyUniversity of Florida College of MedicineGainesvilleUSA

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