Diet and Estrogen Metabolism

  • Christopher Longcope
Part of the Reproductive Biology book series (RBIO)


The hypothesis that dietary constituents affect estrogen metabolism arose, in part, from epidemiological data suggesting that dietary fat was related to breast cancer1-3. These data showed that in populations that ate large quantities of animal fat the incidence of breast cancer was greater than in populations eating minimal amounts of animal fat1,2,4. Since there was evidence that estrogens might be associated with breast cancer, it was felt that low fat diets might reduce the risk of breast cancer by lowering estrogen levels.


Ethinyl Estradiol Metabolic Clearance Rate Estrogen Metabolism Estrone Sulfate Lower Estrogen Level 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Armstrong B, Doll R. 1975. Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 15:617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Miller AB, Gori GB, Kunze M, Grahm S, Reddy BS, Hirayama T, Weisburger J. 1980. Nutrition and cancer. Prev Med 9:189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Miller AB, Kelly A, Choi NW, Matthews V, Morgan RW, Munan L, Burch JD, Feather J, Howe GR, Jain M. 1978. A Study of diet and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 107:499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kelsey JL. 1979. A review of the epidemiology of human breast cancer. Epidemiol Rev 1:74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Goldin BR, Adlercreutz H, Gorbach SL, Warram JH, Dwyer JT, Swenson L, Woods MN. 1982. Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women. N Engl J Med 307:1542.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gray GE, Williams P, Gerkins V, Brown JB, Armstrong B, Phillips R, Casagrande JT, Pike MC, Henderson BE. 1982. Diet and hormone levels in Seventh-Day Adventist teenage girls. Prev Med 11:103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rose DP, Boyar AP, Cohen C, Strong LE. 1987. Effect of a low-fat diet on hormone levels in women with cystic breast disease. I. Serum steroids and gonadotropins. J Natl Cancer Inst 78:623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hagerty MA, Howie BJ, Tan S, Schultz TD. 1988. Effect of low-and high-fat intakes on the hormonal milieu of premenopausal women. Am J Clin Nutr 47:653.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Prentice R, Thompson D, Clifford C, Gorbach S, Goldin B, Byar D. 1990. Dietary fat reduction and plasma estradiol concentration in healthy postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 82:129.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baird D, Horton R, Longcope C, Tait JF. 1968. Steroid prehormones. Perspect Biol Med 11:384.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Longcope C, Gorbach S, Goldin BM, Woods M, Dwyers J, Warman J. 1985. The metabolism of estradiol: oral compared to intravenous administration. J Steroid Biochem 23:1065.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fishman J, Bradlow HL, Schneider J, Anderson KE, Kappas A. 1980. Radiometric analysis of biological oxidations in man: Sex differences in estradiol metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77:4957.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Cargill DI, Steinetz BG, Gosnell E, Beach VL, Meli A, Fujimoto GI, Reynolds BM. 1969. Fate of ingested radiolabeled ethynylestradiol and its 3-cyclopentyl ether in patients with bile fistulas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 29:1051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Abdel-Aziz MT, Williams KIH. 1970. Metabolism of radioactive 17a-ethinylestradiol by women. Steroids 15:695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Longcope C, Williams KIH. 1977. Ethynylestradiol and mestranol: their pharmacodynamics andeffects on natural estrogens. In: SGarattini — #HWBerendes (eds) Pharmacology of Steroid Contraceptive Drugs. Raven Press, New York, p 89.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Longcope C, Gorbach S, Goldin B, Woods M, Dwyer J, Morrill A, Warram J. 1987. The effect of a low fat diet on estrogen metabolism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 64:1246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Musey PI, Collins DC, Bradlow HL, Gould KG, Preedy JRK. 1987. Effect of diet on oxidation of 17b-estradiol in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 65:792.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Anderson KE, Kappas A, Conney AH, Bradlow HL, Fishman J. 1984. The influence of dietary protein and carbohydrates on the principal oxidative biotransformations of estradiol in normal subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 59:103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Michnovicz JJ, Bradlow HL. 1990. Induction of estradiol metabolism by dietary indole-3-carbinol in humans. J Natl Cancer Inst 82:947.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Longcope C, Williams KIH. 1975. The metabolism of synthetic estrogens in non-users and users of oral contraceptives. Steroids 25:121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bird CE, Clark AF. 1973. Metabolic clearance rates and metabolism of mestranol and ethinylestradiol in normal young women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 36:296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Press, New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christopher Longcope
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of OB/GYNUniversity of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA

Personalised recommendations