Internalizing disorders, such as affective disorders, are often thought of as distinct from externalizing disorders (i.e., those that include aggressive behaviors). Current research, however, finds that aggression can occur as part of, or in conjunction with, an affective disorder. The primary forms of aggression that are considered are (1) aggression toward self and (2) aggression toward others. Aggression toward self in the present chapter focuses primarily on suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior is defined as serious suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and suicide completion. Other forms of aggression toward self, such as self-mutilation, are not considered within the boundaries of this chapter because of their primary association with characterological and/or dissociative disorders, rather than with “pure” affective disorders.


Aggressive Behavior Suicidal Ideation Suicide Attempt Affective Disorder Suicidal Behavior 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Miriam S. Lerner
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryMedical College of Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh Campus, Allegheny General HospitalWexfordUSA

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